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26 Cards in this Set

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five critical cognitive processes
executive attention, switching executive attention, ignoring or inhibiting info, scheduling a sequence of activities, monitoring performance
executive processes
processes that modulate the operation of other processes and that are responsible for the coordination of mental acitivity so that a particular goal is achieved.
closed head injury
injury caused by an external bump that does no pierce the skull, causes frontal lobe damage
phineas gage
first insight into the frontal lobe's importance in higher level cognition. after brain damage, major personality changes, irresponisble, impulsive
prefontrol cortex (PFC)
anterior part of the frontal lobe, the part of the brain responsible for executive actions, extremely large in humans, receives info from virtually all perceptual and motor cortical areas and subcortical areas.
frontal executive hypothesis
theory that every executive process is primarily mediated by the PFC.
stroop task
names of colors are presented in colored in and the participant's task is to name the ink color and ignore the color name. sometimes the name and print color are compatible, as when the word blue is printed in that color. other times the color name and the print color are incompatible, as when the word black is printed in blue
executive attention
directs subsequent processing, used whenever multiple mental representations in working memory or multiple processes operating on representations, comkpete for the control of cognition and behavior, determines which competing processes gain control
stimulus-response compatibility
a measure of the degree to which the assignment of the correct response to a stimulus is consistent with the way people would act naturally
compatibility effect
increase in response speed when in a compatible condition, stimulus is on the left, respond with the left and vice versa, automatic processing is involved. when the stimulus and response match, very little processing required.
neural network representation of conflict in processing
three layers: input layer, hidden layer, response layer. associations with nodes vary in weight.
attentional controller
contains an indication of the current goal and adds activation to nodes relevant to that goal.
conflict monitor
monitors the amount of conflict between the nodes at the response level and as conflict increases, the monitor engages executive attention
anterior cingulate
mediates the conflict monitor while the PFC mediates executve attention
front to back
type of processing that is the heart of models of executive attention
fixed versus variable categories
fixed categories contain things that are fairly specific, like the category of quarters. all are very similar. variable categories contain things that can change, like a pizza.
automatic process
one that can be initiated without intention, that operates very rapidly, and can operate without conciousness
nonautomatic process
requires intention, is relatively slow, and requires consciousness for its operation
consciousness
a state that is accompanied by a bertain phenomenology - an experience - and that experience presumably reflects certain types of info processing.
switching attention
the focus of attention is moved from one entity to another
switching cost
time difference involved with switching attention. occurs because executive processes must update and change goals/rules
response inhibition
the suppression of a partially prepared reponse
a not b task
children see object placed in spot a, reach for it, rewarded. see object placed in b. still go for a, even if looking at b. cannot inhibit the response. the PFC has not developed enough.
sequencing
coding information about the order of events in working memory.
three ways of sequencing information
form directed associations between every pair, attach order tags, code order info based on familiarity.
monitoring
the assessment of one's perforance on a task while the task is performed