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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
By virtue of their interconnections with almost all other brain regions, what is the role of frontal lobes?
guide, direct, integrate, and monitor goal-directed behavior
What is executive functioning/frontal lobe functioning?
executive functioning = behavioral manifestations directly or indirectly related to frontal lobe functioning

frontal lobe functioning = behaviors directly linked to frontal lobes
Damage to caudate can result in pathologic behavior similar to?
those caused by direct frontal damage (due to interconnections of frontal lobe with other brain regions)
Executive functioning is not limited to other cognitive processes. What else is involved?
emotional and social regulation
More complex functions evolve as advances in: (3 things)
1. advances in synaptic pruning and sculpting
2. axonal myelination
3. neurochemical changes
Goldman-Rakic = ? (executive functions)
object permanence
Diamond = ? (executive functions)
development of inhibitory control
simple functions (e.g., visual search) emerge early, followed by: x and then y?
x = more complex inhibitory skills

y = advanced skills of cognitive flexibility and complex planning
Executive planning studies (e.g., tower of london w/ ADHD) show ___________ but suggests ___________________ .
parallel trajectory; developmental consequences of impaired executive functions
There are 4 developmentally sensitive executive function domains. List them.
1. attentional control
2. information processing
3. cognitive flexibility
4. goal setting
Regarding executive functions, what is involved in attention control?
selective attention, inhibitory control, sustained attention, monitoring of executed plans
Regarding executive functions, what is involved in information processing?
fluency, efficiency, and speed of output
Regarding executive functions, what is involved in cognitive flexibility?
shifting between response sets, profiting from mistakes, developing alternative strategies, dividing attention, multi-tasking
Regarding executive functions, what is involved in goal setting?
planning, organization, conceptual reasoning, strategic problem-solving
Executive functions reach maturity at different point in development. This is contingent (in part) on ?
maturation of other brain regions and neural systems that support attention, language, emotions, and memory
There are 5 neural circuits associated with frontal-mediated functions/dysfunctions. List them (and their originations)
1. skeletomotor [motor and premotor regions & parietal somatosensory cortex]
2. oculomotor [frontal and supplementary eye fields]
3. dorsolateral prefrontal [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex]
4. orbitofrontal [two subcircuits = lateral and medial frontal cortex]
5. anterior cingulate [anterior cingulate cortex]
What higher order cognitive operations is the dorsolateral circuit involved in? (Nelson listed 14 total)
1. working memory,2. cognitive flexibility,3. maintenance of behavioral sets,4. selective & sustained attention,5. generation of strategic and divergent responses,6. verbal and nonverbal fluency,7. planning and organization,8. inhibitory control, 9. abstract reasoning,10. memory search and retrieval,11. temporal-spatial "tagging",12. self-monitoring,13. insight,14. judgment
Damage of the dorsolateral circuit may precipitate depressive symptoms (even though ventromedial prefrontal damage more associated with this). What sx are are seen?
decreased initiative, apathy, indifference, psychomotor retardation, social uneasiness

BUT absence of: vegetative features, negative cognition, and dysphoria
Damage to the dorsolateral circuit sometimes associated with decreased capacity to ________________.
empathize with others

although more frequently associated with orbitofrontal disruption
Dorsolateral and orbital circuits may be complementary in empathic processing. With each part doing what?
dorsolateral = cognitive aspects

orbital = emotional aspects
What does Fuster's theory (which focuses on dorsolateral) poses that overarching function of prefrontal architecture is ? (i.e., ? )
temporal organization of behavior (i.e., development and implementation of action sequences across time)
In the dorsolateral circuit, temporal organization of behavior extends to ? (e.g. ?)
all voluntary behavior

e.g. skeletal, ocular, speech, internal cognitive-logical reasoning
What 4 cognitive processes support temporal organization of behavior? [dorsolateral circuit]
1. attentional control
2. working memory
3. preparatory motor set
4. response monitoring
How does attentional control support the temporal organization of behavior?
selective, sustain, orienting attention; motivation and drive aspects; inhibitory control and filtering

[cooperative activation of dorsolateral, anterior cingulate, and orbital]
How does working memory support the temporal organization of behavior?
maintenance and manipulation of information held in short term storage to guide behavior; retrospective function in temporal organization

[dorsolateral]
How does preparatory motor set support the temporal organization of behavior?
preparation, timing, and instigation of relevant goal-directed motor behaviors; prospective memory or memory for future action

[dorsolateral]
How does response monitoring support the temporal organization of behavior?
determines whether current goal-directed behaviors should be maintained or modified

[dorsolateral and anterior cingulate]
What does Fuster's theory (which focuses on dorsolateral) poses that overarching function of prefrontal architecture is ? (i.e., ? )
temporal organization of behavior (i.e., development and implementation of action sequences across time)
In the dorsolateral circuit, temporal organization of behavior extends to ? (e.g. ?)
all voluntary behavior

e.g. skeletal, ocular, speech, internal cognitive-logical reasoning
What 4 cognitive processes support temporal organization of behavior? [dorsolateral circuit]
1. attentional control
2. working memory
3. preparatory motor set
4. response monitoring
How does attentional control support the temporal organization of behavior?
selective, sustain, orienting attention; motivation and drive aspects; inhibitory control and filtering

[cooperative activation of dorsolateral, anterior cingulate, and orbital]
How does working memory support the temporal organization of behavior?
maintenance and manipulation of information held in short term storage to guide behavior; retrospective function in temporal organization

[dorsolateral]
How does preparatory motor set support the temporal organization of behavior?
preparation, timing, and instigation of relevant goal-directed motor behaviors; prospective memory or memory for future action

[dorsolateral]
How does response monitoring support the temporal organization of behavior?
determines whether current goal-directed behaviors should be maintained or modified

[dorsolateral and anterior cingulate]