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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the cellular process of oxidizing glucose or food molecules to obtain energy in the form of ATP
cellular respiration
cell of an_____ has eukaryotic properties, and some species have flagella with the'9-2'pattern of microtubules. A nucleus is present, and the multiple chromosomes are observed in mitosis. the chlorophyll and other pigments occur in chloroplasts, which contain membranes known as thylokoids
________are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying out photosynthesis. can be multi or unicellular
a compound is a mass of molecules.
true or false
____ _____ ; which forms when two atoms share on or more electrons with one another
covalent bonds
uni and multicellular eukaryotes, including molds, mushrooms and yeasts
a rigid layer of cellulose surrounding the cell membrane
cell wall
large sesicle used to store water, proteins, and waste
site of photosynthesis; contain chlorophyll and have a double membrane
vesicles of digestive enzymes that degrade old cellular components
sacs in which substances are transported or stored
packages proteins and lipids produces in the ER for export in secretory vesicles
golgi complex (apparatus)
a net work of membranes covered with ribosomes where lipids/proteins are synthesized
smooth/rough endoplasmis reticulum (SER/FER)
double-membraned POWER plants of the cell. location of aerobic respiration
usually filamentous, and their cell walls have chitin. study of is called mycology. major decomposers of organic materials in the soil.filamentous are molds and unicellular are yeasts
storage site of genetic info that determines heredity and directs the activities of a cell
found in unicellular protists and multicellular plants and animals; contain membrane-bound organelles each of which perorms a specific funtion and increase efficiency
long rigid strands of protein called___. found primarily in bacterial rods and are used for motility
certain gram+ bacteria produce highly resistant structures called____ which enable the bacteria to survive during unfavorable conditions. when condidions are favorable the ___ germinates and releases a new vegetative cell, which multiplies, and reforms the colong. include: anthrax, tetanus, botulism and gas gangrene
(endospores) spores
smaller molecules of DNA which exist separate from the chromosome as closed loops. contain few genes but are important because many types carry genes for drug resistant ("R" factors)
a closed loop of DNA which contains the heredity information of the cell. It is suspended in the cytoplasm
globules of starch, glycogen or lipids. these globules are referred to as___ ____ which store nutrients for later use during periods of starvation
inclusion bodies
(organelles within the cytoplasm) bodies of RNA and protein which function in the synthesis of proteins
_____ is the substance inside the cell membrane is a gelatinous mass of proteins, carbs, lipids, salts , inorganic ions and nucleic acids, all dissolve in water. _____ is the foundation substance of a cell.
commonly called plasma membrane (boundary layer of he cell).exists inside the cell wall and functions in transporting nutrient into the cell and waste products out.
cell membrane
cellular envelope is these 3 things:
cell wall
cell membrane
all bacteria have this, it protects the cell and determines its shape. the important chemical composition in this is peptidoglycan a large molecule. composed of alternating units of 2 amino-containing carbs joined by cross bridges of amino acids
cell wall
many bacteria secrete a layer of polysaccharide/protein which adhere to the bacterial surface. it is very sticky-found only in bacillus and cocci forms of bacteria. serves as a buffer between the cell and its external environment in the body, it contributes to the disease because white blood cells do not engulf and destroy(phagocytosis)
lack cell walls; vary in shape(pleomorphic). cause respiratory and urinary tract infections
mycoplasmas(submicroscopic bacteria)
extremely small; gram-negative.invade cells and differentiate into reticulate bodies, which reproduce and form new chlamydiae called elementary bodies. cause reproductive trace infections, diseases of eye and lung.
extremely small; rod-shaped or spherical; gram + . Intracellular parasites of humans and insects . Cause rocky mtn. spotted fever, typhus
Use sulfur metabolism, often producing sulfuric acid as and end product, live in habitats of extremely high temps and low ph.
obtain energy from light via a mechanism different from photosynthesis; live in high-salt environments
anaerobic bacteria that reduce carbon dioxide to methane gas; reside in areas of decomposing matter
evolved before eubacteria, but have not undergone significant evolution since. grow in extreme conditions have unusual lipids in cell membranes and unique RNA molecules in their cytoplasm. Lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls