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124 Cards in this Set

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cum puero
with the boy

Cum as a preposition will be closely followed by a word in the ablative case
cum domini irati servis
with the angry master's servants

Cum as a preposition will be closely followed by a word in the ablative case
cives, cum hostes impetum fecerint, moenia defendent
When the enemy attack (lit. will have attacked), the citizens will defend the walls

cum + indicative = expresses time only
tum clamores audivi cum surgebam
I heard the shouts just when I was getting up

cum + indicative = expresses time only (reinforced by tum)
vix domum adveneram cum clamores audivi
I had scarcely arrived home when I heard the shouts

cum + indicative = expresses time only
cum primum + indicative
as soon as
cum primum domum rediit, cubitum ivit
As soon as he returned home, he went to bed.

cum primum + indicative = as soon as
pueri, cum taurum conspexerant, aufugiebant
Whenever they saw a bull, the boys used to (would) run away

cum + pluperfect = whenever
pueri, cum taurum conspexerant, aufugiunt
Whenever they see a bull, the boys run away

cum + pluperfect = whenever
dominus, cum omnia cognovisset, servos culpavit
When the master learned the whole story, he blamed the slaves

cum + subjunctive can mean when, since or although. Judge on context. When only with past tenses of subjunctive
cum custodes dormirent, unus ex captivis effugit
When the guards were sleeping, one of the prisoners escaped.

cum + subjunctive can mean when, since or although. Judge on context. When only with past tenses of subjunctive
discipuli, cum ignavi sint, poenas dabunt
Since the pupils are lazy, they will be punished

cum + subjunctive can mean when, since or although. Judge on context.
cum senator multos inimicos haberet, neminem timebat
Although the senator had many enemies, he feared no one

cum + subjunctive can mean when, since or although. Judge on context.
movit patres conscriptos cum causa tum actor
Both the motion and its proposer influenced the senator

cum...tum... with a common verb can mean both...and... or not only...but also....
dum per viam ambulabam, amicum meum quaerebam
While I was walking along the street, I kept looking for my friend

dum + indicative = time only. While, as long as, or (sometimes ) until.
amicum meum quaerebam dum eum conspexi
I kept looking for my friend until I caught sight of him

dum + indicative = time only. While, as long as, or (sometimes ) until.
dum cives legibus parebunt, res publica erit tuta
As long as the citizens (will) obey the laws, the state will be safe

dum + indicative = time only. While, as long as, or (sometimes ) until.
dum per viam ambulo, amico meo occurri
While I was walking along the street, I met my friend

dum + indicative = time only. While, as long as, or (sometimes ) until.
hic manebo dum tu vera mihi dicas
I shall remain here until you tell me the truth

dum + subjunctive = until, when there is an underlying idea of purpose or intention
senatores exspectabant dum consul adveniret
The senators were waiting for the consul to arrive (lit. until such time as the consult should arrive)

dum + subjunctive = 'until', when there is an underlying idea of purpose or intention
oderint dum metuant
Let them hate so long as they fear

dum + subjunctive can = 'so long as' or 'provided that' depending on context
te adiuvabimus dummodo ne huc redeas
We shall help you provided that you do not return here

dum (strengthened dummodo) + subjunctive can = 'so long as' or 'provided that' depending on
pauci, ut videtur, pro patria arma sumere volunt
Few men, (as) it seems, are willing to take up arms for their country

ut + indicative = when, as
puer, ut taurum conspexit, quam cellerime aufugit
When the boy caught sight of the bull, he ran off as quickly as possible

ut + indicative = when, as
haec, ut in secundis rebus, segniter otiosque gesta sunt
This was done in a slow and leisurely way, as (was natural) in favourable circumstances

ut without a verb = introduces a phrase which reinforces or slightly modifies what has been said
inde perventum est ad frequentem, ut inter montanos, populum
After that they reached a district that was thickly populated for a mountain region.

ut without a verb = introduces a phrase which reinforces or slightly modifies what has been said
tanta erat civium multitudo ut in mediam urben pervenire non possem
So great was the number of citizens that I could not reach the city centre.

ut + subjunctive following words such as tam, tantus, ita, adeo = result. Translate as 'that'
Caesar principibus Gallorum imperavit ut obsides traderent
Caesar ordered the Gallic chiefs to hand over the hostages

ut + subjunctive following a speaking/ordering verb = indirect command
lacrimantes regem oraverunt ut sibi parceret
In tears they begged the king to spare them

ut + subjunctive following a speaking/ordering verb = indirect command
orator obsecrabat ut reus absolveretur
The orator pleaded that the accused be acquited

ut + subjunctive following a speaking/ordering verb = indirect command
veritus sum ut milites me servarent
I feared that the soldiers would not protect me

ut following vereri = that...not...
accidit ut...
it happened that...

learn as vocab
fieri potest ut...
it is possible that...

learn as vocab
ex quo factum est ut...
the result of this was that...
mane profecti sumus ut fugientes persequeremur
We set off in the morning to pursue the fugitives

ut + subjunctive, but without fearing/ordering words or other big clue usually = Purpose. Trans. w infinitive
cras collem ascendemus ut solem orientem spectemus
We shall climb the hill tomorrow to watch the sunrise

Ut w no obvious indicator as to use probably equals purpose
tibi, ut mihi videtur, domum redeundum est
As it seems to me, you should return home

An ut clause preceding the verb on which it depends.
ut seritur, ita metitur
As one sows, so does one reap

Ut clause preceding the verb on which it depends. As...so
hic contra ut paulum exspectaret manu significat
He however gestured with his hand that he should wait a little

Ut clause preceding the verb on which it depends. Here introducing an Indirect command/purpose clause
ut hostes averteret, Hannibal Hannonem adverso flumine misit
To distract the enemy, Hannibal sent Hanno upstream.

Ut clause preceding the verb on which it depends. Here introducing an Indirect command/purpose clause
quod praemium sperat Caecilius?
What reward does Caecilius hope for?

quod as a neuter interrogative adjective
quod nomen tibi est?
What is your name?

quod as a neuter interrogative adjective
flumen quod per fines Aeduorum fluebat, Caesar transire constituit.
Caesar decided to cross the river which flowed through the territory of the Aedui.

quod as the neuter singular of the relative pronoun
id, quod vides, monumentum antiquissimum est.
What (lit. that which) you see is a very ancient monument.

quod as the neuter singular of the relative pronoun
quod ea nocte cognovit, id ne uxori quidem patefecit
What he learned that night he did not reveal even to his wife.

quod as the neuter singular of the relative pronoun (id/quod inverted)
quod tu fecisti, nemo culpare potest.
No one can criticise what you have done.

quod as the neuter singular of the relative pronoun, antecedent id omitted
quod monumentum vides est antiquissimum.
The monument which you see is very old.

quod as the neuter singular of the relative pronoun, with the antecedent incorporated into the relative clause.
nocte ex urbe discessit quod inimicos timebat
He left the city at night because he feared his enemies.

quod introducing a Causal clause which may either follow or precede the main clause.
nostri, quod hostes numero superiores erant, se castris continebant
Because the enemy were superior in number, out men confined themselves to the camp

quod introducing a Causal clause which may either follow or precede the main clause.
idcirco quod
for the (simple) reason that
propterea quod
for the following reason, namely that
Milonem reum fecerunt quod Clodium interfecisset
They brought Milo to trial on the grounds that he had killed Clodium

quod introducing a clausal clause with a subjunctive verb, indicating that the reason is alleged rather than actual
hostes ad vallum currebant. quod cum vidisset
The enemy ran towards the rampart. When he saw this...

quod as the first word in a sentence may be a 'linking relative', referring to a noun or statement in the previous sentence.
quam ferociter latrant hi canes!
How fiercely these dogs are barking!

quam before an adjective or adverb usally introduces an exclamation or a question. Translate 'how'
quam mirabilem fabulam!
What a wonderful story!

quam before an adjective or adverb usally introduces an exclamation or a question. Translate 'how'
quam celeriter huc rediisti?
How quickly did you return here?

quam before an adjective or adverb usally introduces an exclamation or a question. Translate 'how'
nuntiam quam celeriter huc rediisset
I asked the messenger how quickly he had returned here

quam before an adjective or adverb usally introduces an exclamation or a question. Translate 'how'
quam fabulam miles tibi narravit?
What story did the soldier tell you?

Quam immediately preceding a feminine noun in the accusative case may be an interrogative adjective introducing a question
nescio quam fabulam miles tibi narraverit
I do not know what story the soldier told you

Quam immediately preceding a feminine noun in the accusative case may be an interrogative adjective introducing a question
haec est navis quam cras conscendemus
quam following a sing. fem. noun or pronoun may be the acc. s. fem. of the relative pronoun.
raeda lente appropinquabat. quam ubi audivi, respexi
The coach was approaching slowly. When I heard it, I looked round.

quam as the first word in a sentence may be a linking relative, referring to a fem. s. noun in the previous sentence.
nemo cantat dulcius quam soror tua.
No one sings more sweetly than your sister

quam following a comparative adjective or adverb means 'than'
senex infirmior erat quam qui e lecto surgeret
The old man was too weak (lit 'weaker than who') to get up from his bed.

quam following a comparative adjective or adverb means 'than'
te quam eum adiuvare malo.
I prefer to help you rather than him

quam may mean 'than' when used with certain verbs or expressions that suggest comparison or preference.
nihil aliud quam pacem peto
I seek only peace

quam may mean 'than' when used with certain verbs or expressions that suggest comparison or preference.
haec templa quam saepissime visitare conamur
We try to visit these temples as often as possible.

quam preceding a superlative adjective or adverb means 'as...as possible'
quam maximum potuit numerum militum collegit
He gathered as large a number of soldiers as possible.

quam preceding a superlative adjective or adverb means 'as...as possible'
nonne nostri tam fortes sunt quam hostes
Surely our men are as brave as the enemy?

quam used with its correlative tam will usually be translated 'as'
non prius abibo quam omnia cognovero
I shall not go away until I learn everything

priusquam split, so that quam appears as a seperate word
paucis post horis quam navigaveramus, tempestas coorta est.
A few hours after we had sailed, a storm arose

postquam split, so than quam appears as a seperate word.
custodes missi sunt qui numtium comprehenderent
Guard were sent to arrest the messenger

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = purpose (present or imperfect subjunctive, common w verbs such as ire, venire, mittere)
viator gladium habet quo se defendat
The traveller had a sword with which to defend himself

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = purpose (present or imperfect subjunctive, common w verbs such as ire, venire, mittere)
Cicero, qui coniuratorum consilia sciret, rem publicam servavit
Seeing that (since) he knoew the conspirators' plans, Cicero saved the state.

relative pronoun + subjunctive (any tense) - to explain the cause or reason underlying an action
ancillae, quippe quae falsa dixissent, castigatae sunt
The maidservants were scolded since they had told told lies OR for telling lies

relative pronoun + subjunctive (any tense) - to explain the cause or reason underlying an action. Sometimes quippe accompanies
consul, qui aegrotaret, tamen ad Curiam ivit
Although he was ill, the consul went to the Senate.

relative pronoun + subjunctive - can be concessive. Translate as 'although'
domina non erat tam stulta quae servo crederet
The mistress was not so stupid as to believe the slave

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = result (with any tense)
dignus sum qui domum mittar
I deserve to be sent home (lit. I am worthy so that (as a result) I should be sent home)

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = result (with any tense)
sunt qui credant te multa scelera admisisse
There are some who believe that you have committed many crimes.

Relative pronoun + subjunctive describing a 'type' of person/thing or a 'class' of people. Generic use.
Caesar non erat is qui periculum timeret
Caesar was not the sort of man to fear danger

Relative pronoun + subjunctive describing a 'type' of person/thing or a 'class' of people. Generic use.
nemo erat quin tibi confideret
There was no-one who did not trust you

Generic use of relative pronoun + subjunctive. qui...non = quin
nemo hos versus umquam audivit quin lacrimaret
No one has ever heard these lines without weeping.

Generic use of relative pronoun + subjunctive. qui...non = quin. Sometimes quin can be translated as 'without'
quin domum mecum venis?
Why don't you come home with me?

quin + indicative = why...not?
quin conscendimus equos?
Why don't we mount our horses?

quin + indicative = why...not?
nihil patrem deterrebit quin rus proficiscatur.
Nothing will prevent my father from leaving for the country.

quin + subjunctive. After a verb of preventing or hindering, translate quin as 'from -ing'
nostri vix impediri poterant quin flumen transirent
Our men could scarcely be stopped from crossing the river.

quin + subjunctive. After a verb of preventing or hindering, translate quin as 'from -ing'
quis dubitat quin vera dixeris?
Who doubts that you told the truth? (ie no one is in any doubt)

quin + subjunctive after a verb of doubting, trans. as 'that'
non dubium erat quin falsa diceret
There was no doubt that he was lying

quin + subjunctive after a verb of doubting, trans. as 'that'
nemo est quin sicat
There is no one who does not know (ie everyone knows)

quin + subjunctive - usually means 'who...not'
nulla fuit civitas quin Caesari pareret
There was no community which did not submit to Caesar

quin + subjunctive - usually means 'who...not'
quis est quin ei crederat
Who is there who does not believe him?

quin + subjunctive - usually means 'who...not'
nemo est tam prudens quin interdum erret
No one is so wise that he does not sometimes make a mistake

quin + subjunctive - usually means 'who...not'
numquam eum vidi quin riderem
I never saw him without laughing

quin + subjunctive - usually means 'who...not'
fieri non potest quin vera dixerit
It in impossible that he has not told the truth (ie He must have told the truth)

quin + subjunctive. Stock phrase, learn as vocab item
facere non possum quin te rideam
I cannot help laughing at you

quin + subjunctive. Stock phrase, learn as vocab item
nulla causa est quin tibi credam
There is no reason why I should not believe you

quin + subjunctive. Stock phrase, learn as vocab item
nihil praetermittemus quin patriam defendamus
We shall leave no stone unturned to defend our country

quin + subjunctive. Stock phrase, learn as vocab item
mullum diem praetermitto quin aliquid novi discam
I let no day pass without learning something new

quin + subjunctive. Stock phrase, learn as vocab item
haud multum afuit quin caderem
I almost fell (lit. It was not far away from my falling)

quin + subjunctive. Stock phrase, learn as vocab item
sis felix!
May you be fortunate

Subjunctive in a main clause expressing a wish
Caesar adveniat!
Let Caesar come!

Subjunctive in a main clause expressing a command
statim proficiscamur!
Let us set out at once!

Subjunctive in a main clause expressing an exhoratation
utinam Caesar veniat
I wish Caesar would come

Subjunctive in a main clause expressing a wish
sit fur, at est dux bonus
A thief he may be, but he is a good leader

Subjunctive in a main clause expressing a concession
si pater nos videat, nos puniat
If father were to see us, he would punish us

Subjunctive in a main clause in a conditional sentence
quis tibi credat?
Who would believe you? (if you were to say that?)

subjunctive in a main clause, conditional sentence, with the if clause omitted or suppressed.
quid faciam?
subjunctive in a main clause - deliberative question.
velim abire
I should like to go away

Potential subjunctive in a main clause
ausim hoc negare
I'd venture to deny this

Potential subjunctive in a main clause
malim
I should prefer

potential subjunctive in a main clause
nolim
I should not like

potential subjunctive in a main clause
utinam Caesar adesset
I wish that Caesar were here

Imperfect subjunctive in a main clause, expressing a wish
si Caesar adesset, nullam periculum esset.
If Caesar were here, there would be no danger

Imperfect subjunctive in a main clause - conditional sentence
quid faceret?
What was he to do?

Conditional subjunctive in a main clause - deliberative question
crederes eos victos esse
You would have thought they had been defeated

Potential imperfect subjunctive in a main clause
mallem domi manere
I would have preferred to stay at home

Potential imperfect subjunctive in a main clause
ne existimaveris hoc esse facile
Do not think this is easy!

Perfect subjunctive in a main clause - negative command
utinam me vidisses
I wish you had seen me (then)!

Pluferfect subjunctive in a main clause, expressing a wish
castra, si hostes oppugnavissent, facile cepissent
If the enemy had attacked the camp, they would have captured it easily.

Pluperfect subjunctive in the main clause of a conditional sentence.
licet abeas
You may go away

Licet is most commonly used with the present infinitive, but can occasionally be used with the subjunctive in subordinate clauses.
licet mihi odio sis, tamen tibi subveniam
Even though I hate you, I will still help you

Licet is most commonly used with the present infinitive, but can occasionally be used with the subjunctive in subordinate clauses.
di faciant ut vincas
May the gods see to it that you win.

Facere is occasionally used with the subjunctive (with or without the ut)
fac redeas
See to it that you return

Facere is occasionally used with the subjunctive in subordinate clauses(with or without the ut)
nihil te impedit quominus eum adiuves
Nothing prevents you from helping him.

quominus (sometimes 2 words) + subjunctive in a subordinate clause = when used with verbs of hindering and preventing, translate as 'from -ing'
se gerit perinde ac si rex esset
He is behaving exactly as if he were a king

perinde ac si, quasi, tamquam si and velut si may be used with the subjunctive when a comparison is made with an untrue situation.