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162 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
milites, qui totum diem contenderant, erant defessi
The soldiers, who had marched all day, were tired

Relative clause
milites, quos Caesar puniverat, ignavi fuerant
The soldiers, whom Caesar had punished, had been cowardly

Relative clause
puella, cuius mater mortua erat, lacrimabat
The girl, whose mother had died, was crying

Relative clause
meus amicus, cui pecuniam commisi, me prodidit
My friend, to whom I handed over the money, betrayed me

Relative clause
habitamus Athenis, quam urbem omnes mirantur
We live in Athens, a city which all admire

Relative clause with the antecedent incorporated into the relative clause
venit cum copiis quas firmissimas habebat
He came with the strongest forces he had

Relative clause with the antecedent incorporated into the relative clause
hoc timeo, quod Caesar rex fieri vult
This is what I fear, that Caesar wishes to become king

Demonstrative hoc followed by relative clause = strengthened statement
res loquitur ipsa, iudices. quae semper valet plurimum
The facts speak for themselves, gentlemen. That always carries conviction.

Demonstrative pronoun followed by relative clause = strengthened statement
leo Androclem non petivit. quod ubi videmus, mirati sumus
The lion did not attack Androcles. When we saw this, we marvelled.

Demonstrative pronoun followed by relative clause = strengthened statement
abierunt illi ridentes
They went away laughing

Present participle
lupum in silvan intrantem conspeximus
We caught sight of the wolf going into the wood

Present participle
ei roganti respondere semper conor
I always try to answer his questions (his asking)

Present participle
multi ex adstantibus lacrimabant
Many of the bystanders were weeping

Present participle
una ex ancillas ad tabernam profecta est panem empura
One of the maids set out for the shop (intending) to buy bread

Future participle (Active)
coquus vocatus a convivis laudatus est
When he had been summoned, the cook was praised by the guests

Perfect participle
coquum vocatum convivae laudaverunt
Having summoned the book, the guests praised him

Perfect participle (acc)
coquo vocato conviviae gratis egerunt
The cook was summoned and the guests thanked him

Perfect participle (dat)
illi libertatem imminutam non tulerunt
They did not tolerate the restriction of freedom (lit. reduced freedom)

Perfect participle (where English would use a noun)
a villa profectus fugitivus flumen transire conans captus est
Having set out from the villa, the runaway slave was caught tryin to cross the river.

Perfect participle, deponent verb
oratore loquente, cives tacebant
While the orator was speaking, the citizens did not speak

ablative absolute (present)
oratore lucuto, cives inter se loquebanter
After the orator had spoken, the citizens talked among themselves

Ablative absolute (perfect)
oratore locuturo, cives conticuerunt
Since the oratore was going to speak, the citizens fell silent

Ablative absolute (future)
Augusto mortuo, Tiberius princeps factus est
On the death of Augustus, Tiberius became emperor.

Ablative absolute (where English would use a noun)
militibus progredientibus, hostes terga dederunt
During the advance of the troops, the enemy turned and fled.

Ablative absolute (where English would use a noun)
Caesare duce
under the leadership of Caesar

Ablative absolute
me custode
While I am on guard

Ablative absolute
inscia matre
Without mother's knowledge

Ablative absolute
puto pueros esse molestissimos
I think the boys are very troublesome

Acc/Inf
credisne servum in horto laborare
Do you believe that the slave is working in the garden?

Acc/Inf
scimus patrem iratissimum esse
We know that father is very angry

Acc/Inf
audio Caesarem Gallos vicisse
I hear that Caesar had defeated the Gauls

Acc/Inf
audio Gallos a Caesare victos esse
I hear that the Gauls have been defeated by Caesar

Acc/Inf
senator dicit nuntium mox ab urbe perventurum esse
The senator says that a messenger will soon arrive from the city

Acc/Inf
putavi pueros esse molestissimos
I thought that the boys were very troublesome

Acc/Inf (Main verb in past tense)
credebasne servum in horto laborare
Did you believe that the slave was working in the garden?

Acc/Inf (Main verb in past tense)
audivi Caesarem Gallos vicisse
I head that aesar had defeated the Gauls

Acc/Inf (Main verb in past tense)
senator dixit se suos amicos in urbe vidisse
The senator said that he had seen his friends in the city

Acc/Inf w se/suus, which usually refers to the subject of the main verb
Caesar negait se captivos necavisse
Caesar said that he had not killed the prisoners

Acc/ Inf
scimus acriter pugnari
We know that a fierce battle is going on

Acc/Inf: with verbs used impersonally, only the infinitive is expressed
eum rogavi quis esset
I asked him who he was

Indirect question
nescio cur non pervenerit
I do not know why he has not arrived

Indirect question
mirabat quando pervenurus esset
I wondered when he would arrive

Indirect question
rogavit num quid audivissem
He asked if I had heard anything

Indirect question
miror utrum domum redire velit an diutius manere malit
I wonder if he wants to return home or prefers to remain longer

Indirect question
incerti erant copiasne adversus hostem educere an castra defendere praestaret
They were uncertain whether it was best to lead their troops out against the enemy or to defend the camp

Indirect question
scisne utrum venire in animo habeat necne?
Do you know if he intends to come or not?

Indirect question
puer rogavit cur se punirem
The boy asked why I was punishing him

Indirect question (se/suus refers to subject of main verb
scimus quot sint discipuli
We know the number of pupils

Indirect question (noun in English, not a clause)
vidi quantus esset exercitus
I saw the size of the army

Indirect question (noun in English, not a clause)
cognovi quando pervenisset
I learned the time of his arrival

Indirect question (noun in English, not a clause)
sciebamus quo iret
We knew his destination

Indirect question (noun in English, not a clause)
senem rogavimus ut domi maneret
We asked the old man to stay at home

Indirect command (translate ut + subjunctive as an infinitive)
tyrannum orabimus ut mulieribus parcat
We shall beg the tyrant to spare the women

Indirect command (translate ut + subjunctive as an infinitive)
servos monebo ne vinum in culina bibant
I shall warn the slaves not to drink wine in the kitchen

Indirect command (translate ne + subjunctive as an infinitive)
dux milites hortatus est ne arma deponerent
The general urged the soldiers not to lay down their arms

Indirect command (translate ne + subjunctive as an infinitive)
coquo imperavit ut in atrium veniret
He ordered the cook to come into the atrium

Indirect command
imperavit ut coquus arcesseretur
He fave orders that the cook be sent for

Indirect command
Catalinae imperavit ut ex urbe abiret neve umquam regrederetur
He ordered Cataline to leave the city and never return

Double indirect command (translate neve, neque or neu as And Not)
mihi persuasit ut sibi pecuniam darem
He persuaded me to give him the money.

Indirect command (se/suus refers to the subject of the main verb)
Puer arborem ascendit ut milites vidiret
The boy climbed the tree to see the soldiers

Purpose (ut or ne + subjunctive)
pure de arbore descendit ut milites se viderent
The boy came down from the tree so that the soldiers would see him

Purpose (ut or ne + subjunctive)
puer arborem ascendit ne milites se viderent
The boy climbed the tree so that the soldiers wouldn't see him

Purpose (ut or ne + subjunctive)
puer arborem ascendit ne a militibus videretur
The boy climbed the tree so that he would not be seen by the soldiers

Purpose (ut or ne + subjunctive)
aurum celavit ne quis id inveniret
He concealed the gold so that no one might find it

Purpose (ne + quis, quis = so that no one / in case anyone)
servus aufugit ne puniretur neve caederetur
The slave ran away to avoid being punished or killed

Purpose (double negative)
duae legiones advenerunt quae castra defenderent
Two legions arrived to defend the camp

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = purpose
legatos delegerunt qui pacem peterent
They chose ambassadors to sue for peace

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = purpose
cives arma poscunt quibus moenia defendant
The citizens are demanding arms so that they may defend the walls with them.

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = purpose
dux misit qui haec Caesari nuntiarent
The general sent (men) to report this to Caesar

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = purpose. Antecedent omitted
venerunt qui se excusarent
People came to apologise

relative pronoun + subjunctive can = purpose. Antecedent omitted
milites manipulos laxaverunt quo facilius gladiis uti possent
The soldiers opened up their ranks so that they could use their swords more easily.

Purpose, with quo instead of ut, since the purpose clause contains a comparative adjective
Caesar ad cohortandos milites decucurrit
Caesar ran down to encourage the soldiers

ad + gerundive used to express purpose
ad eas res conficiendas biennium eis satis esse videbatur
Two years seemed to them to be long enough to complete these preparations.

ad + gerundive = purpose
milites praedandi causa e castris egressi sunt
The soldiers went out of the camp to gather booty

causa + gerundive = purpose
principes legatos miserunt pacem rogatum
The chieftains sent envoys to ask for peace

supine expressing purpose after verbs of motion/implying motion
Hannibal patriam defensum revocatus est
Hannibal was recalled to defend his homeland

supine expressing purpose after verbs of motion/implying motion
Galli Clusium venerunt legionem Romanam oppugnaturi
The Gauls came to Clusium intending to attack the Roman legion

Future participle used to express purpose
hoc fecit ut se suosque servaret
He did this to protect himself and his men

Purpose clause (se/suus refers to subject of the main clause
iter tam periculosum est ut proficisci timeamus
The route is so dangerous that we are afraid to set out.

Result clause. tam + ut + subjunctive
tanti erant fluctus ut naves portum capere non possent
The waves were so big that the ships could not reach the harbour

Result clause. tantus/a/um + ut + subjunctive
servus dominum adeo timebat ut aufugerit
The slave feared his master so much that he ran away

Result clause. adeo + ut + subjunctive
adeo mihi non subvenerunt ut inimicis me tradiderint
Instead of helping me they handed me over to my enemies (lit. to such an extent that they did not help me)

Result clause. adeo + ut + subjunctive
tantum abest ut...
It was so far distant that...
Instead of...

Impersonal expression used to introduce result clauses
tantum afuit ut mihi subvenirent ut inimicis me tradiderint
Instead of helping me they handed me over to my enemies

Impersonal expression "tantum adeo ut" used to introduce result clause.
puer timet ne in aquam cadat
The boys fear that he will fall into the water

Fearing clause w ne + subjunctive
Caesar metuebat ne Galli castra Romana oppugnarent
Caesar feared that the Gauls would attack the Roman camp

Fearing clause w ne + subjunctive
timebant ne unus ex custodibus urbem hostibus prodidisset
They feared that one of the guards had betrayed the city to the enemy

Fearing clause w ne + subjunctive
nos timebus omnes ne nuntius ad tempus non adveniat
We are all afraid that the messenger will not arrive in time

Fearing clause w ne + subjunctive
Verebantur Romani ut socii sibi subvenirent
The Romans feareed that their allies would not help them.

Fearing clause w ut + subjunctive (translate ut as 'that...not'
verebantur ne piratae se caperent
They feared that the pirates would capture them

Fearing clause w ne + subjunctive (se/suus refers to subjuct of main verb)
pueri speluncam intrare timebant
The boys were afraid to enter the cave

Fearing using the present infinitive
ubi domum rediero, statim cubitum ibo
When I return home, I shall go to bed immediately

Time clause. Indivative verb = pure time (no purpose or intention, as with subjunctive)
consul, ut Curiam intravit, a patribus salutatus est
When the consult entered the Senate house, he was greeted by the senators

Time clause. Indivative verb = pure time (no purpose or intention, as with subjunctive)
pueri, dum nantabant, delphinum spectabant
While the boys were swimming they were watching the dolphin

Time clause. Indivative verb = pure time (no purpose or intention, as with subjunctive)
simulatque nos viderunt, fugerunt
As soon as they saw us, they fled

Time clause. Indivative verb = pure time (no purpose or intention, as with subjunctive)
custodes portas clauserunt antequam hostes urbem ingrederentur
The guards closed the gates before the enemy could enter the city

Time clause w subjunctive = purpose or intent
paucos moratus est dies dum se copiae ab Corcyra adsequerentur
He delayed a few days for the forces from Corcyra to catch (him) up

Time clause w subjunctive = purpose or intent
lupus exspectabat dum dormitarent canes
The wolf was waiting for the dogs to doze off

Time clause w subjunctive = purpose or intent
dum dormio, fur vestimental arripuit
While I was sleeping, the wolf stole my clothes

Time clause (note tense difference Latin/English)
cum ludos videbo, laetus ero
When I see the games, I shall be happy

Time clause (note tense difference Latin/English)
cum erum videro, eum salutabo
When I see him, I shall greet him

Time clause (note tense difference Latin/English)
servi, cum dominum conspexerunt, strenue laborant
Whenever the slaves see their master, they work hard

Time clause (note tense difference Latin/English)
quotiens eum cantatem audiveram, ridebam
Whenever I heard him singing, I used to laugh

Time clause (note tense difference Latin/English)
iam pridem effugere conamur
We have been trying to escape for a long time (and we are still trying)

Time clause w iam = ongoing action
iam diu effugere conabamur
We had been trying to escape for a long time (and we were still trying)

Time clause w iam diu = ongoing action
non prius abibo quam tu vera dixeris
I shall not go away until you tell the truth

Time clause w priusquam (which is split. Antequam does this also)
poeta tribus post diebus quam ex Graecia redierat mortuus est.
Three days after he (had) returned from Greece, the poet died.

Time clause w postquam (split up, especially when a definite interval of time is mentioned)
si tu vales, ego gaudeo
If you are well, I am pleased

Conditional sentence w indicative
si id fecit, erravit
If he did that, he made a mistake

Conditional sentence w indicative
si falsa dicis, punieris
If you are lying, you will be punished

Conditional sentence w indicative
si id feceris, poenas dabis
If you do that, you will be punished

Conditional sentence w indicative
nisi celerius curremus, furem non capiemus
If we do not run faster, we shall not catch the thief

Conditional sentence w indicative
si id dicas, erres
If you were to say that, you would be wrong

Conditional sentence w subjunctive. Present
nisi canis latravisset, furem non cepissemus
If the dog had not barked, we would not have caught the thief

Conditional sentence w subjunctive. Pluperfect
si rex essem, omnes me timerent
If I were king, all men would fear me

Conditional sentence w subjunctive. Imperfect
si talia verba tibi dixissem, amici non essemus
If I had said that sort of thing to you, we should not (now) be friends

Conditional sentence w subjunctive, mixed tenses
nisi anseres clangorem fecissent, arx capi potuit
If the geese had not cackled, the citadel could have been taken.

Conditional sentence w indicative AND subjunctive
nos servare potest, si vellet
He could save us if he wanted to

Conditional sentence w indicative AND subjunctive
si me revera amares, mihi parcere te oportuit
If you really loved me, you ought to have spare me

Conditional sentence w indicative AND subjunctive
nisi ex Italia effugisset, puniendus fuit
If he had not escaped from Italy, he would have had to be punished

Conditional sentence w indicative AND subjunctive
omnia faciam si forte viam salutis invenire possim
I'll make every effort to see if I can find a path to safety

Conditional sentence. si + present or imperfect subjunctive (often forte) can mean 'in case', 'in the hope that', or 'to see if'
clamabant si quis se audiret
They kept shouting in the hope that someone would hear them

Conditional sentence. si + present or imperfect subjunctive (often forte) can mean 'in case', 'in the hope that', or 'to see if'
acriter pugnatur
There is a fierce battle

Passive used impersonally
tandem ad urbem perventum
At last the city was reached/At last they reached the city

Passive used impersonally
hostibus ferociter resistebatur
Fierce resistance was offered to the enemy/The enemy were fiercely resisted

Passive used impersonally
ad urbem concursum est
There was a rush to the city

Passive used impersonally
nobis laborandum est
We must work

Passive used impersonally
militibus imperatum est
The soldiers were ordered

Passive used impersonally
hostibus a custodibus resistebatur
The enemy were resisted by the guards

Passive used impersonally
tibi numquam credetur
You will never be believed

Passive used impersonally
legibus a nobis parendum est
The laws must be obeyed by us

Passive used impersonally
dicunt acriter pugnari
They say that a fierce battle is raging

Passive used impersonally
scimus nobis laborandum esse
We know that we must work
pueri ad litus ad natandum descenderunt
The boys went down to the beach to swim

Gerund in the accusative case after 'ad', expressing purpose
Libri ad studendum necessarii sunt
Books are necessary for studying

Gerund in the accusative case after 'ad', expressing purpose
Pueri ad litus natandi causa descenderunt
The boys went down to the beach to swim.

Gerund in the genitive case with 'causa', expressing purpose
puer artem natandi a fratre didicit
The boy learned the art of swimming from his brother.

Gerund in the genitive case, depending on a noun which governs the genitive
mater pueri omnia cognoscendi avida erat
The boy's mother was eager to learn everything

Gerund in the genitive, depending on a noun or adjective which governs the genitive
tempus redeundi est
It is time to return (for returning)

Gerund in the genitive, depending on a noun or adjective which governs the genitive
omnes vivendo discimus
We all learn by living

Gerund in the ablative
ad urbem capiendam milites misit
He sent soldiers to capture the city

Gerundive in the accusative case, after 'ad', expressing purpose
ad equos emendos huc venerunt
They have come here to buy horses

Gerundive in the accusative case after 'ad' expressing purpose
nautae navem reficiendam curaverunt
The sailors attended to the repair(ing) of the ship

Gerundive in the accusative case (governed by curare, suscipere and tradere)
libri legendi causa
to read a book

Gerundive in the genitive, with causa, expressing purpose
civium servandorum causa
to save the citizens

Gerundive in the genitive, with causa, expressing purpose
ars epistolae scribendae
the art of writing a letter

Gerundive in the genitive, depending on another noun or an adjective which governs the genitive
peritus belli gerendi
skilled in waging war

Gerundive in the genitive, depending on another noun or an adjective which governs the genitive
iam tempus est discipuorum dimittendorum
Now it is time to dismiss the pupils

Gerundive in the genitive, depending on another noun or an adjective which governs the genitive
de epistolis scribendis
about writing letters

Gerundive in the ablative case
urbs defendenda est
The city must be (ought to be, should be) defended

Gerundive with esse, expressing obligation or necessity
moenia erant custodienda
The walls had to be guarded

Gerundive with esse, expressing obligation or necessity
vinum tibi non bibendum est
The wine must not be drunk by you
You must not drink the wine

Gerundive with esse, expressing obligation or necessity. Note dative subject with impersonal neuter gerundives.
surgendum mihi est
I ought to get up

Gerundive with esse, expressing obligation or necessity. Note dative subject with impersonal neuter gerundives.
mox nobis profiscendum erit
We will have to set out soon

Gerundive with esse, expressing obligation or necessity. Note dative subject with impersonal neuter gerundives.
militibus fortius est pugnandum
The soldiers must fight more bravely

Gerundive with esse, expressing obligation or necessity. Note dative subject with impersonal neuter gerundives.
tantam pecuniam habeo quantam tu
I have as much money as you

tantus...quantus = correlatives
talis erat qualen numquam antea videramus
The cloud was such as we had never seen before

talis...qualis = correlatives
eandem fabulam mihi narravisti ac puer
You have told me the same story as the boy

= correlatives
pirata mortem ita obiit ut vitam egerat
The pirate met death in the same way he had lived his life

= correlatives
eo profectus est quo ceteri viatores
He set out for the place to which the other travellers (had gone)
He set out for the same place as the other travellers

= correlatives
tot captivi sunt in castris quot milites
There are as many prisoners in the camp as soldiers

= correlatives
quo saepius urbem visito, eo magis ruri habitare malo
The more often I visit the city, the more I prefer to live in the country

= correlatives