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47 Cards in this Set

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Exocrine Glands
Release enzymes to the external environment through ducts (Ex. sweat glands, oil glands, salivary glands, digestive glands)
Endocrine Glands
Release hormones into body fluids
What are the differences between the Nervous System and the Endocrine System?
The Endocrine System is slower, less direct and longer lasting
All hormones act by binding to proteins called ___________.
Receptor
What is the purpose of the Endocrine System?
The endocrine system alters metabolic activities, regulates growth and development, and guide reproduction.
The three basic types of hormones are:
Steroid, Tyrosine, Peptide
What are the 6 major peptide hormones that are released by the anterior pituitary?
1. Human growth hormone (hGH)
2. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
5. Leutinizing hormone (LH)
6.Prolactin
(hGH) Human growth hormone
A peptide that stimulates growth in all cells of the body
hGH stimulates growth by: increasing episodes of mitosis, increasing cell size and rate of protein synthesis, increasing the use of fatty acids for energy, mobilizing fat stores and decreasing the use of glucose
(ACTH) Adrenocorticotropin hormone
A peptide that stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids (stress hormones) via the second messenger system.
ACTH is stimulated by many types of stress
(TSH) Thyroid-stimulating hormone
A peptide that stimulates the release of T3 and T4 via the second messenger system using cAMP. TSH also increasing thyroid cell size, number and the rate of secretion of T3 and T4.

(T3 and T4 have negative feedback release on TSH release)
(FHS) Follicle-Stimulating hormone
A peptide which stimulates growth of the ovarian follicle including: the developing egg, the cells surrounding the egg that produce the hormones needed to support a pregnancy and the fluid around the egg.
(LH) Luteinizing hormone
A peptide that help to increase the amount of estrogen produced by the follicle cells.

However, its main function is to cause ovulation
Prolactin
A peptide that promotes lactation (milk production) by the breasts.
What are the two small peptides that are found in the posterior pituitary?
1. Oxytocin
2. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) also called Vasopressin
Oxytocin
A small peptide that increases uterine contractions during pregnancy and causes milk to be ejected from the breasts
(ADH) Antidiuretic hormone (also called Vasopressin)
A small peptide hormone that causes the collecting ducts of the kidney to become permeable to water reducing the amount of urine and concentrating the urine.

Since fluid is reabsorbed, ADH also causes increased blood pressure
Name and define the two types of steroids secreted by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex?
And name a major example of each.
1. Mineral corticoids affect the electrolyte balance in the blood stream. Ex. Aldosterone

2. Glucocorticoids increase blood glucose concentration and have an effect on fat and protein metabolism. Ex. Cortisol
Aldosterone
A steroid that increases Na+ and Cl- reabsorption and K+ and H+ secretion.

It produces a net gain of particles in the plasma and therefore causes an increase in blood pressure

Secreted by the adrenal cortex
Cortisol
A steroid that increases blood glucose levels by stimulating gluconeogenesis (the creation of glucose and glycogen) in the liver

Cortisol also:
-degrades adipose tissue to fatty acids to be used for cellular energy
-causes a moderate decrease in the use of glucose by the cells
-diminishes the capacity of the immune system to fight infection

Secreted by the adrenal cortex
Gluconeogenesis
The creation of glucose and glycogen, mainly in the liver, from amino acids, glycerol, and/or lactic acid
Catecholamines
Epinephrine and norepinephrine, vasodilators and vasoconstrictors; act on receptors at the membrane
"fight or light" response
T3 &T4
Diffuse through the lipid bilayer and act in the nucleus of the cells of their effector; increase basal metabolic rate
Calcitonin
Builds bone mass by decreasing blood calcium and osteoclast activity and number; released by the thyroid gland
Insulin
(peptide) Lowers blood glucose levels

Released by beta cells of the pancreas
Glucagon
(peptide) Raises blood glucose levels

Released by alpha cells of the pancreas
PTH
Parathyroid hormone (peptide)- Decreases bone mass by increasing blood calcium and increasing osteoclast absorption
Peptide hormones
Manufactured in the rough ER, transported to the Golgi apparatus and released upon stimulation via exocytosis
Steroid hormones
Formed in the smooth ER and mitochondria transported to the nucleus and acts at the transcription level
Tyrosine derivative hormones
Formed by enzymes in the cytosol OR on the rough ER
Testosterone
The primary androgen (male sex hormone) that stimulates germ cells to become sperm and also attributes to the development of pubic hair, enlargement of larynx, and growth of penis and seminal vesicles
Estradiol
A steroid hormone that prepares the uterine wall for pregnancy

It's a type of estrogen
Luteal Surge
Usually estradiol inhibits LH secretion by the anterior pituitary, but just before ovulation, the estradiol levels rise rapidly and dramatically increase LH secretion (this is the luteal surge)

It's a positive feedback loop: high estrogen causes high LH which causes high estrogen
Corpus Luteum
Secretes estradiol and progesterone throughout pregnancy or, in the case of no pregnancy, for about 2 weeks until the corpus luteum degrades into corpus albicans
What is the difference between an ovum and a zygote?
An ovum is the female gamete and a zygote is the fusion of the ovum and sperm (fertilization)
Cleavage
the series of synchronized mitotic cell divisions of the fertilized egg that results in the formation of the blastomeres and changes the single-celled zygote into a multicellular embryo
Morula
A zygote comprised of 8 or more cells
HCG
Human chorionic gonadotropin - prevents degeneration of the corpus luteum and maintains secretion of estrogen and progesterone
When is a female said to be pregnant?

What is the first outward sign of pregnancy?
1. Upon implantation
2. When HCG appears in the blood and urine
Determination
The process where a cell becomes committed to a certain developmental path
Implantation
The process of attachment of the embryo (blastocyte) to the maternal uterine wall (called also nidation)
Gastrulation
An early metazoan embryo in which the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm are established by invagination of the blastula
What do ectodermal cells develop into?
(In general)
The outer coverings of the body such as:
-The outer layers of skin
-Nails
-Tooth enamel
-Cells of the nervous system
-Sense organs
What do mesodermal cells develop into?
(In general)
They form:
-Lining of the digestive tract
-liver
-pancreas
What do endodermal cells develop into?
(In general)
They form:
-Inner and outer coverings of the body
-muscle
-bone
-the rest (what's not formed by the other layers)
When does induction occur?
When one cell type affects the direction of differentiation of another cell
Calcitonin
Helps regulate calcium levels in your body and is involved in the process of bone building.
Epididymus
Where the sperm goes to mature and be stored until ejaculation