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274 Cards in this Set

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Cytoplasm
All the living material (organelles and fluid) inside the cell, except the nucleus.
Organelle
A small part of the cell, usually enclosed by a membrane, that performs a specialized function.
Cell Membrane
Selectively permeable structure that encloses the cell's contents and regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment. Also called the plasma membrane.
Nucleus
In eukaryotic cells, the double membrane-bound organelle that contains chromosomal DNA, and thus controls the cell's activities.
Nucleoli
Irregular rounded structures in the nucleus. They are sites of RNA synthesis.
Cytoplasm
All the living material (organelles and fluid) inside the cell, except the nucleus.
Organelle
A small part of the cell, usually enclosed by a membrane, that performs a specialized function.
Cell Membrane
Selectively permeable structure that encloses the cell's contents and regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment. Also called the plasma membrane.
Nucleus
In eukaryotic cells, the double membrane-bound organelle that contains chromosomal DNA, and thus controls the cell's activities.
Nucleoli
Irregular rounded structures in the nucleus. They are sites of RNA synthesis.
Nuclear Envelope
The double membrane boundary around the nucleus. It contains many pores to allow certain molecules to pass in and out
Chromosome
A rod-like group of genes in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Tightly-coiled DNA, proteins
Chromatin
A stringy network of DNA and proteins in the nucleus. During mitosis and meiosis, it forms rods called chromosomes.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of branching membranous channels located in the cytoplasm, which serves to transport materials within the cell. Rough ER contains ribosomes and are a site of protein synthesis. Smooth ER have no ribosomes and are a site of lipid synthesis
Ribosome
The protein factory of the cell; they are located on the ER or in the cytoplasm (composed of RNA and protein)
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell; carry on cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells
Cristae
The foldings of the inner membrane in the mitochondria. ATP formation happens here
Lysosome
A membrane-bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes.
Golgi Apparatus
An organelle consisting of stacks of flattened sacs. It modifies and packages substances to be transported around and out of cells.
Vacuole
Organelle, common in plants, that stores food, water, waste products, etc.
Phagocytic Vesicle
Organelle which forms when the plasma membrane folds in as the cell engulfs larget extra-cellular particles during phagocytosis.
Microtubules
Tubular protein structures involved with chromosome movement during cell division. They compose the internal structure of cilia and flagella, and provide cell shape.
Centrioles
Animal cell structures made of microtubules; they organize microtubule assembly of the spindle during mitosis and meiosis
Cytoskeleton
A network of microtubules and other protein filaments that supports the cell structure and drives cell movement
Cilia
Short hairlike appendages specialized for motion. They enable some protista to move. They also move material along a cell or tissue.
Function of Cell Wall
Protection and support
Function of Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis
Function of Cilia and Flagella
movement
Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum
Transport system
Function of Golgi Body
Packages and secrete proteins
Function of Lysosome
Intracellular Digestion
Function of Mitochondria
Sites of cellular respiration
Function of Nucleus
Controls cell activities
Function of Ribosomes
Synthesis of protein
Function of Vacuoles
Storage
Function of Cell Membrane
Regulates transport of substances into/out of cell
3 Basic Statements of The Cell Theory
1. All living things are composed of cells. 2. Cells and cell products are the basic units of structure and function in living things. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell that does not have a membrane-bound nucleus or organelles. Monerans are comprised of this cell type
Eukaryotic Cell
A cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles; all kingdomw except monera contain this type of cell.
Diffusion
The movement of a substance from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration of the substance.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane.
Selectively Permeable
Property of biological membranes that allows only selected substances to pass through.
Active Transport
The movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient; requires an input of cellular energy usually in the form of ATP.
Endocytosis vs. Exocytosis
Both are types of active transport; endocytosis is the uptake of materials by the cell (pinocytosis, phagocytosis); exocytosis is the release of materials from the cell into the environment when vesicles fuse with the membrane.
Carbohydrate - list 5 examples and function in human body
A compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ration of 1:2:1 (glucose, fructose, starch, cellulose, glycogen) - human body's main energy source.
Lipid - list 3 examples and function in human body
Compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Composed of 2 basic compounds - glycerol and fatty acides. (Fats, oils, waxes). Function: energy storage, cushioning, insulation.
Protein - list 2 examples and function in human body
An organic compound made of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acides (enzymes, gelatin, collagen, hemoglobin) Functions: structural components of cells, organic catalysts, antibodies, hormones.
Nucleic Acid - list 2 examples and the function in human body
Organic compound made of nucleotides. Ex.- DNA and RNA code instructions for protein synthesis.
Three factors affecting enzyme function
pH, Temperature, Relative amounts of substrate and enzyme
Hydrolysis
Catabolic reaction that splits apart molecules and consumes water.
Dehydration Synthesis
the process where smal molecules are bonded to make a larger molecule, and water is released. For example: two glucose (a monosaccharide) molecules are linked to form maltose (a disaccharide).
Amino Acids
The guilding blocks of protein (lysine, valine, arginine, alanine, glycine, serine)
Polypeptide
A chain of amino acides that makes up protein
Saturated Fat
The carbon chain of the fatty acid is joined by single bonds and has about twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms; usually solid at room temperature (lard, butter)
Unsaturated Fat
The fatty acide chain contains some double covalent bonds and less than twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon atoms; usually liquid at room temperature (oil)
Which nitrogenous bases pair in DNA? In RNA?
DNA: adenine & thymine; cytosine & guanine; RNA: adenine & uracil; cytosine & guanine
Aerobic Respiration vs. Fermentation: Net ATP Production? Products of Reaction?
AEROBIC: 36 ATP are produced; CO2 and H2O are released; ANAEROBIC: 2 ATP are produced; CO2 and alcohol are released in alcoholic fermentation; lactic acid released in lactic acid fermentation
Three Phases of Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
Glycolysis
The breakdown of glucose; forms pyruvic acid and ATP; occurs in the cytoplasm.
Fermentation
Release of stored chemical energy without the use of oxygen. Takes place in yeast and some bacteria.
Aerobic Respiration
Release of stored chemical energy with the use of oxygen
Krebs Cycle
(Citric Acid Cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle) A circular series of enzyme reaction during cellular respiration that consumes pyruvic acid and releases energy and carbon dioxide. Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
Electronic Transport Chain
A series of enzymes that pick up and transfer hydrogen to its final acceptor - oxygen, producing water. Leads to synthesis of ATP. The third step of cellular respiration.
ATP
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE - A molecule that is the energy currency of cell metabolism in all living things. Composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates.
Photosynthesis Reaction - Reactants and Products
Conversion of light energy into chemical energy; food-making process of autotrophs. Reactants: H2O, CO2; Products: glucose, oxygen, H2O
General chemical equation that summarizes photosynthesis
6H20 +6CO2 ->C6H12O6 +6O2 ; in the presence of light, chlorophyll and enzymes
Light Reactions
First stage of photosynthesis; light energy is absorbed, water is split to produce O2 gas and ATP and NADHP are produced.
Calvin-Benson Cycle
During photosynthesis, the series of enzyme reactions in which carbon dioxide is "fixed" (incorporated) into sugars (sometimes called "dark reactions")
4 Factors that influence the rate of photosynthesis
Light intensity; Temperature; CO2 Concentration; O2 Concentration
Charles Darwin
British naturalist who observed the diversity of life pon his five-year maritime journey in the 1850s on the Beagle where he formulated his theory of evolution by means of natural selection.
Natural Selection
Evolutionary mechanism where the members of a population that are most suited (adapted) to their environment will most likely survive and reproduce.
Adaptations
Characteristics that increase the chance that an organism will survive and reproduce in a certain environment
Homologies
Structural similarities that indicate a common evolutionary ancestry; useful in classification. Ex: bird wing, whale flipper, human arm
Major distinction between monera and the 4 other kingdoms
Monerans are composed of prokaryotic cells. All other kingdoms are composed of eukaryotic cells.
Seven levels of classification from the most general to the most specific
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Nine phyla of animals
Porifera; Cnideria (Coelenterates); Platyhelminthes; Nematoda; Annelida; Mollusca; Arthropoda; Echinodermata; Chordata
Four phyla of plant divisions
Non-vascular plants (bryophytes, mosses, liverworts); Vascular seedless plants (Pterophyta, ferns); Vascular seed plants (gymnosperms, coniferophyta, conifers); Flowering plants (anthophyta, angiosperms)
Protozoa - 4 characteristics and 4 examples
animal-like, single-celled, may form colonies, free-moving except for sporozoans (ex. Amoeba, paramecium, euglena, malaria plasmodium)
Fungi - 4 characteristics and 3 examples
Plant-like, heterotrophic (no chlorophyll), form spores, cell wall composed of chitin (yeast, mold, mushroom)
5 features of an amoeba
Moves and feeds using pseudopods; Takes in food via phagocytosis; Food digested in food vacuole; Contractile vacuole eliminates water; Reproduces with binary fission
5 features of a parmecium
Locomotion via cilia; Ingests via oral groove; Eliminates waste via anal pore; 2 nuclei: Micronucleus and Macronucleus; Reproduces via conjugation.
Bacteria - 5 characteristics and 3 basic shapes
Smallest cells known; have a cell wall; form spores; no nuclear membrane; may have flagella (bacilli, cocci, spirilla)
Blue-green Algae - 3 characteristics and 2 examples
Cells usually larger than bacteria; Contain chlorophyll, Carry on photosynthesis (Nostoc, Gloeocapsa)
Six major types of plant tissues and their functions
Epidermal - protection; Parenchyma - storage; Collenchyma - support; Vascular - conducting; Meristematic - growth; Schlerenchyma - support.
Four major layers of tissue in the leaf
Upper and Lower Epidermis; Palisade layer of Mesophyll; Spongy layer of Mesophyll; Vascular bundles (veins)
Xylem
In vascular plants, the non-living transport tube that carries water and minerals upward from the roots and stem to the rest of the plant.
Phloem
In vascular plants, the living cells arranged into transport tubes that carry sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
Four major functions of the plant root
Anchorage; Absorption; Transport; Storage.
Two major functions of the plant leaf
Photosynthesis; Transpiration
Four major functions of the plant stem
Support; Transport; Storage; Photosynthesis.
Gametophyte
A haploid plant that produces gametes by mitosis
Sporophyte
A diploid plant that produces spores by meiosis
Pollination
The transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigmal can be by wind, water, animals.
Ovule
A structure in seed plants that develops in the ovary and contains the egg.
Stigma
In angiosperm flowers, the region of the carpel that is the receiving surface for the pollen
Stamen
The pollen-producing (male) organ of a flower; consists of an anther and a filament.
Five major functions of bones
Suuport of the body; Protection of the organs (brain, spinal cord, thoracic organs); Movement (placement of attachment for muscles); Storage of fat and minerals; Blood cell formation
Cartilage
A connective tissue found in vertebrate skeletons; in adult vertebrates, much of it is converted into bone.
Compact Bone vs. Spongy Bone
Compact bone is dense and smooth looking; Spongy bone is composed of small flat pieces of bone and contains open spaces.
Tendons vs. Ligaments
They are both fibrous tissue. Tendons attach muscles to bones; Ligaments connect bones to bones.
3 Types of joints and their locations
Ball and socket joint (shoulder, hip); Hinge joint (knee, elbow); Immovable joint (skull).
3 types of muscle tissue and their location in the body. Are they voluntary or involuntary?
Striated/skeletal - attached to the bone, voluntary; Smooth - blood vessels and digestive organs, involuntary; Cardiac - heart, involuntary rhythmic contractions; striated.
Six types of connective tissue and their location
Bone (skeleton); Cartilage (nose, trachea, ear); Fibrous (tendon, ligament); Elastic (blood vessels); Fat (under skin, around organs); Blood (within blood vessels)
Four chambers of the heart
Right atrium; Left atrium; Right Ventricle; Left Ventricle.
Compare Atrium and ventricle
The two atria are located at the top of the heart and receive incoming blood from the body. The two ventricles are below the atria and pump blood out of the heart to the body.
Compare artery and vein
Artery - A thick-walled vessel that carries blood from the heart to the tissues; Vein - a vessel that carries blood from the tissues to the heart.
Aorta
The major artery of the body; carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body.
Vena Cavae
The largest veins in the body; bring blood from all part of the body (except the lungs) to the right atrium
Pulmonary Arteries
Blood vessels leading from the right ventricle to the lungs. Contain deoxygenated blood.
Pulmonary Veins
Blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
Summarize the circulatory route in the body. Start with blood returning to the heart.
Vena cava -> Right Atrium -> Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Artery -> Lung Capillaries -> Left Atrium -> Left Ventricle -> Aorta
The three cellular components of blood
Red blood cells (erythrocytes); White blood cells (leukocytes); Platelets (thrombocytes)
Antigen
A foreign substance (usually protein or polysaccharide) that induces an immune response and interacts with specific antibodies.
Antibody
A protein that is produced by lymphocytes in response to a foreign antigen; antibodies bind to antigens and cause agglutination.
Which blood type is considered the unversal donor and why?
A person with blood type O can donate blood to all other ABO blood types because the blood cells lack the surface antigens that trigger agglutination in the host.
T Lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell involved with cell-mediated immunity and interactions with B cells; produced in the thymus
B Lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell that is capable of making and secreting a specific type of antibody once it comes into contact with the corresponding antigen
The principle organs of the immune system
Lymph Nodes; Spleen; Thymus; Bone Marrow
Summarize the route of air through the respiratory system
Nostrils -> Nasal Cavity -> Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Alveoli
Pharynx
The muscular tube that is the gateway to the trachea and digestive tract; the throat
Epiglottis
Elastic cartilage at the back of the throat; covers the opening to the respiratory tract during swallowing
Trachea
The windpipe that carries air between the larynx and bronchi
Larynx
The cartilaginous organ between the pharynx and trachea; the voice box
Kidney
Organ that filters blood to remove nitrogenous wastes; also regulates the water and solute balance in the blood
Renal Artery
Blood vessel which carries nitrogenous waste containing blood to the kidney
Nephron
The functional unit of the kidney; one of many tubules involved in filtration and selective reabsorption of blood.
Glomerulus
In the kidney; a dense network of capillaries enclosed by a Bowman's Capsule
Bowman's Capsule
In the kidney, a thin-walled cup which surrounds the glomerulus and is involved with forced filtration
Loop of Henle
A hairpin shaped section of the renal tubule in which salt and water are reabsorbed into the blood
Urine - describe its path out of the body
Consists of water and dissolved waste products from blood. Kidney -> ureter -> bladder -> urethra
Seven components of the Alimentary Canal
Mouth (oral cavity); Pharynx; Esophagus; Stomach; Small intesting; Large Intesting; Rectum
List four enzymes present in intestinal juice and their functions
Maltase (digest maltose); Lactase (digests milk sugar - lactose); Sucrase (digests cane sugar (sucrose); Lipase (digests fat)
List four enzymes present in pancreatic juice and their functions
Chymotrypsin (digests protein); Trypsin (digests protein); Amylase (digests starch); Pancreatic lipase (digests fat)
What are the end products in the digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates?
Protein (amino acids); Fat (fatty acids and glycerol); Carbohydrate (simple sugars, monosaccharides)
Three types of nerve tissue and their location
Sensory (connect brain & spinal cord with sensory organs); Motor (connects brain & spinal cord with muscles and glands); Associative (within brain and spinal cord)
Cerebrum
Largest part of the brain; occupies upper part of skull and is responsible for thought, memory, sensation, and voluntary movement
Cerebellum
The region of brain responsible for balance and coordination of muscles
Medulla Oblongata
The most posterior portion of the brain; controls involuntary functions such as breathing, heart rate and certain reflexes
Ganglia
A mass of cell bodies located on the sides of the backbone; part of the autonomic nervous system
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord; most association occurs here
Cochlea
Snail-shaped chamber involved with hearing
Tympanic Membrane
Eardrum; sound waves beat against it which causes vibrations in the small bones of the ear
Two types of sensory cells in the eye
Rods (involved with black and white vision); Cones (involved with color vision)
Retina
The photosensitive layer of the eye; contains several layers of neurons, rods and cones
Cornea
The transparent outer layer of the eye
Nine glands that produce hormones
Adrenal; Islands of Langerhans (pancreas); Parathyroid; Pineal; Pituitary; Hypothalamus; Thymus; Thyroid; Gonads (ovaries and testes)
Gastrin
Stomach hormone that stimulates gastric glands to secrete gastric juices
Secretin
Small intesting hormone that stimulates the pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice
Thyroxin
Hormone produced by the thyroid. Regulates the rate of cell metabolism
Adrenalin
Adrenal medulla homone that stimulates heartbeat, breating and blood pressure; also called epinephrine
Cortisone
Glucocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
Growth Hormone
Anterior pituitary hormone that promotes growth
Prolactin
Anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates production of milk during and after pregnancy
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid bland to produce and release thyroxin
Oxytocin
Pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions
Testosterone
Steroid hormone produced in the testes of the male; regulates male secondary sexual traits and sperm production
Estrogen
Steroid hormone produced in the ovaries of the female; regulates secondary female sexual traits and the menstrual cycle.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Posterior pituitary hormone that regulates the rate of water absorption in the kidneys and intestines (also called vasopressin)
Binary Fission
The nuclreus of a full grown cell divides in two and the cell splits into two equal-sized daughter cells (amoeba, bacteria)
Budding
Fully grown cell or organism formsa small cell or outgrowth (bud) which splits from the parent and develops into a separate organism (yeast, hydra)
Spore Formation
Tiny cells (spores) form in spore cases. They are scattered around when the case bursts. Each spore becomes a new organism. (bread mold)
Fertilization
The method of reportuction in animals and plants. The two uniting gametes are different in size, shape and activity
Gamete
A sex cell; it joins with another gamete to form a single cell; called a zygote. (sperm, egg)
Blastula
The stage where the embryo has the appearance of a hollow ball of cells one layer thick.
Gastrula
The stage where the blastula grows inward to form a cup-like shape with two and then three layers of cells. (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)
Ectoderm
the outer primary germ layer of the gastrula; it develops into the skin and nervous system
Endoderm
the inner, primarly germ layer of an animal embryo which develops into internal organs such as the lining of the digestive tract.
Mesoderm
The middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo; it develops into muscles, bone, blood, etc
Vivparous
Animals that give birth to live young; the embryo is developed and nourished internally (humans, horses, cat, some sharks)
Ovoviviparous
Animals that retain the fertilized eggs in their body until they hatch (guppies, reptiles, mosquito, fish)
Oviparous
Animals that lay eggs that develop outside the mother's body (fish, birds, reptiles, monotremes)
Ovulation
The release of a mature egg (ovum) from its follicle
Fallopian Tube
One of the two tubes in human female through which a mature egg (ovum) passes after being released from the ovary; fertilization occurs here
Placenta
The organ through which nourishment and waste products are exchanged between the mother and embryo
Umbilical Cord
Structure that connects the placenta to the fetus; contains blood vessels
Amniotic Fluid
Surrounds the fetus; provides a cushioning environment for protection; enclosed by the amniotic membrane (amnion)
Four stages of the menstrual cycle
Foillicle stage; Ovulation; Luteal stage; Menstruation
The four stages of the cell cycle
G1 (growth and metabolism; S (DNA synthesis); G2 (Growth and metabolism); M (mitosis)
The three stages of interphase
G1; S; G2
The major difference between cells in the G1 vs. G2.
Cells in the G2 stage have twice as much DNA as those in G1
The four phases of mitosis
Prophase; Metaphase; Anaphase; Telophase
Mitosis
Nuclear division usually followed by cytoplasmic division which forms two genetically identical daughter cells
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes that occur in paris; they are the same length and have alleles for the same traits at corresponding locations
Meiosis
Cell division which produces haploid gametes from diploid cells. Usually four gametes are formed from one diploid cell
Haploid
A cell that contains only 1 chromosome from each homologous pair (gamete)
Diploid
A cell that contains a pair of each homologous chromosome; one set is inherited from each parent. (body cell, fertilized egg)
Primary Sex Cells
Cells contained in the gonads that will eventually become gametes
Polar Body
Small non-functioning cell produced as a result of oogenesis (egg formation)
Summarize the work of Gregor Mendel
A 19th C monk who studied heredity in garden pea plants; published first genetic studies; known as "father of genetics"
Mendel's Law of Dominance
When organisms that are pure breeds for contrasting traits are crossed, the trait expressed by the offspring is the dominant trait
Mendel's Law of Segregation
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes (with the alleles they carry) separate and go to different gamete cells
Allele
One of two or more different forms of a gene
Homozygous
Having 2 identical alleles for a trait (BB or bb)
Heterozygous
Having 2 different alleles for a trait (Bb or Tt)
Phenotype
The expression of a genotype; can be an appearance or function of an organism (tall, blue eyes, type B blood)
Genotype
The genetic make-up of an organism; the actual genes an organism has for a trait (a cat with brown-eyed phenotype may have a heterozygous genotype (one allele for brown, one allele for blue))
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
The inheritance of alleles on one homologous chromosome pair has no effect on the inheritance of alleles on a different homologous chromosome pair
Summarize the work of Thomas Hunt Morgan
Received the Nobel prize for research on a fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster); he located certain genes on the chromosomes (drew maps); discovered x-linked genes
Linkage
Genes which are inherited together because they are located on the same chromosome; they do not independently assort
Crossing Over
Durring meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange genes; results in genetic recombination
Name some dominant human traits
Dark Hair; Curly hair; Normal Pigmentation; Rh Positive Blood; Normal Color vision
Name some recessive human traits
Light hair; Straight hair; Albinism; Rh Negative Blood; Color Blind Vision
Sex-linked traits (X-linked traits)
Traits that are carried on the sex chromosomes (color blindness; hemophilia)
Characteristics of Klinefelter's Syndrome
Male with XXY genotype; Tall stature; sexually underdeveloped; may have learning disabilities
Characteristics of Turner's Syndrome
Female with XO genotype, missing second X; Short webbed neck; underdeveloped sexually; sterile; poor spatial relation skills
Watson-Crick DNA Model
Double helix; 2 chains of nucleotides running in opposite directions; Chains are connected by bonds between sugars and phosphates; Between chains, nitrogen bases are connected by weak hydrogen bonds
Three types of RNA
Messenger RNA; Transfer RNA; Ribosomal RNA
Hardy-Weinberg Equations
p + q =1; p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1; p=frequency of dominant allele; q=frequency of recessive allele.
Metric Abbreviations: Mega
Kilo
Energy The ability to do work; it is released or absorbed during chemical reactions in the form of heat
light
Physical properties Properties which can be observed without changing the substance into something different. Color
odor
Physical change Substance changes form or state only. Boiling
melting
Element. List some examples A substance is composed of identical atoms. Gold
silver
Mixture. List some examples. A combination of substances held together by physical means (dirt
milk
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous mixtures. Provide examples. Homogeneous mixtures are uniform in composition (air
metal alloy
The Law of Conservation of Mass Durring a chemical reaction
matter is neither created nor destroyed
Atomic Number: What are the atomic numbers of helium
hydrogen
Isotope Atoms which contain the same numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons (ex. Hydrogen has 3 isotopes with mass numbers of 1
2
Empirical Formula. What are the molecular and empirical formulas of peroxide? An expression which gives the relative numbers of atoms of the elements in a molecule. Expressed as the lowest possible set of integers (H2O2
HO)
mx1
mx2
%x1
%x2
Mole "6.02x10^23 items
can be anything.
For any substance
write a general formula to convert from Moles to Grams "g=(n)(MM) where
For any substance
write a general formula to convert from Grams to Moles "n = g/MM
For any substance
write a general formula to convert from Moles to Number of Particles "(n)(6.02x10^23) = P
For any substance
write a general formula to convert from Number of Particles to Moles "n = P/6.02x10^23
Diatomic; list 7 diatomic elements found in nature A molecule composed of two atoms. H2
N2
Period A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table. All have the same number of shells of e-. Across the period
the elements' properties change.
Metalloid. List 5 examples. An element with the properties of both metals and non-metals. Ex. Si
As
Transition element A metal having two incomplete shells of electrons; many have multiple oxidation states; less active than family IA & IIA. Ex.
Fe
Compare the ionic radii of 1) Cl
S
Which sublevels are present in energy levels 1
2
2: s
p
3: s
p
4-7: s
p
What is the order for filling sublevels (aufbau process) from lowest to highest energy 1s
2s
Write the electron configuration for 1) Lithium; 2) Iron "1) 1s2
2s1
2) 1s2
2s2
What are the valences of the elements of families IA through VIIIA? The valences of elements in groups IA - VIIIA are the element's column number. For example
the valence of Na is 1; O is 6
Polar covalent bond When the EN difference is between 0.5 and 1.7
the bonding electrons stay closer to the more electronegative atom. Electrons are shared unequally.
Hydrogen bonding Formed when hydrogen is bonded to oxygen
fluorine
Double and Triple covalent bond In a double bond
wo pairs of electrons are shared. In a triple bond
Hybrid orbitals (list three types) Where 2 or more pure atomic orbitals are mixed to form identical hybrid orbitals (ex. Sp
sp2
Describe hybrid bonding in water
ammonia
List in the order of increasing enthalpy: solid
gas
In a thermochemical equation
what happens to ?H when the moles of reactants double? Enthalpy is directly proportional to mass. Therefore when the moles double
Write an equation to calculate energy change when a fixed mass of substance changes temperature ?H = mCp?T
where ?T = temperature change
Boyles Law P1V1 = P2V2 (Temperature and amount of gas are constant
P=pressure
Combined Gas Law P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 (amount of gas is contant. P=pressure
V=vol; T=Kelvin)
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures In a gas mixture
the total pressure equals the sum of the partial pressures of each component. Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3…
Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT
(P=pressure in atm; V = volume in L; n = # moles; R = 0.0820 Latm/Mol-K; T = Temp in K)
Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Gas Volumes When only gases are involved in a reaction
the volumes of reactants and products are in a small
Phase equilibrium For a liquid in a closed container
when the rates of evaporation (liquid to gas) and condensation (gas to liquid) equalize; the concentration of each is stable.
Triple Point The only temperature and pressure combination at which the 3 phases of a substance (solid
liquid
Solvent (provide example A substance
usually a liquid
Solution (provide example) A liquid
gas or solid phase containing 2 or more components uniformly dispersed (air
What is a general rule for solubilities of polar and nonpolar compounds? "Like dissolves like"; Ionic and polar solvents dissolve ionic
polar solutes (water dissolves salt). Non polar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes (acetone dissolves gasoline)
Write the equilibrium expression for aA + bB ? cC + dD Keq = [C]c[D]d / [A]a[B]b
where Keq = Equilibrium constant
Le Chatelier's Principle If stress is placed on a system at equilibrium
the equilibrium shifts in order the counteract the effects of the stress and regain equilibrium
How does a concentration change affect equilibrium? If one of the substances is added or removed
all the concentrations of substances adjust to a new equilibrium with the same Keq
How does a change in temperature affect equilibrium The reaction shifts to a new equilibrium point with a new Keq. If the temperature is raised
the equilibrium is shifted to reaction which absorbs heat.
How does a pressure change affect equilibrium? Only in reactions where gases are involved. The reaction will shift to oppose pressure change
resulting in fewer moles of gas particles
How can ?G be used to predict if a reaction is spontaneous? When ?G is positive it is not spontaneous; negative
it is spontaneous; equals 0 it is at equilibrium.
pH. For what values is a solution acidic
basic and neutral? pH = -log[H+] ; The degree of acidity of a solution. <7 =acid; 7 = neutral; >7 = basic.
pOH. For what values is a solution acidic
basic
Conjugate Base - Write conjugate base of HCl When a Bronsted acid donates a proton
it becomes its conjugate base (conjugate base of HCl is Cl-)
Electrolyte (give 3 examples) A solute whose aqueous solution contains ions and conducts electricity (acids
bases
Nonelectrolyte (give 2 examples) A solute whose aqueous solution does not conduct electricity (sugar
benzene
Half Reaction One of the two parts
either the reduction or the oxidation
How can you determine if a redox reaction will take place spontaneously Add the electrode potentials of the two half reactions. If the result is positive
the reaction is spontaneous; if negative
Faraday A unit of electric charge which deposits by electrolysis one equivalent weight of an element. Equals 96
500 coulombs
Bonds commonly to O
H
Saturated and Unsaturated. Which are sturated? Alkanes
alkenes
Addition reaction In an unsaturated hydrocarbon
two atoms may be added to the structure across a double or triple bond (C2H2 + Br2 ? Ch2Br2)