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100 Cards in this Set

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Perikaryon
also known as the cell body, or soma. it is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.
Dendrite
are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. AFFERENT, THEY ARE AFFECTED.
Axon
is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. EFFERENT, EFFECTS THINGS.
Schwann Cell
a variety of glial cell that keep peripheral nerve fibres (both myelinated and unmyelinated) alive. In myelinated axons, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath. The sheath is not continuous. Individual myelinating Schwann cells cover about 100 micrometre of an axon. The end result is a string of Schwann cells along the length of the axon, much like a string of sausages.
Nodes of Ranvier
areas of exposed axon in between the schwann cells, allows for fast conduction of impulses through saltatory conduction.
Perikaryon
also known as the cell body, or soma. it is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus.
Dendrite
are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. AFFERENT, THEY ARE AFFECTED.
Axon
is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. EFFERENT, EFFECTS THINGS.
Schwann Cell
a variety of glial cell that keep peripheral nerve fibres (both myelinated and unmyelinated) alive. In myelinated axons, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath. The sheath is not continuous. Individual myelinating Schwann cells cover about 100 micrometre of an axon. The end result is a string of Schwann cells along the length of the axon, much like a string of sausages.
Nodes of Ranvier
areas of exposed axon in between the schwann cells, allows for fast conduction of impulses through saltatory conduction.
Glial Cells (neuroglial cells)
support cells of the nervous system, form a sheath around the axon (schwann cells and oligodendrocytes) protecting it and keeping it alive.
Difference between Oligodendrocytes and Schwann Cells
oligodendroglia are found in the CNS, schwann cells in the PNS. both serve basically the same purpose, the cover and maintain the axon.
Nervous System Organization
refer to slide 4 in Chapter 44 lecture.
CNS
myelinated (oligodendrocytes) axons form the white matter, dendrites and cell bodies form the grey matter.
PNS
myelinated axons are bundled to form nerves, cell bodies for ganglia.
Membrane Polarity
Negative Pole = cytoplasmic side
Positive Pole = ECF side
The Na/K Pump
maintains the resting membrane potential, for every 2 K+ that enter, 3 Na+ exit.
Na/K Pump Cycle
(1) carriers in the membrane attach to intercellular sodium (2) ATP phosphorylates the membrane protein to which the sodium is bound (3) ATP phosphorylation results in a conformational change in the protein, reducing it's affinity for sodium resulting in diffusion of sodium out of the cell (4) the new protein conformation results in a higher affinity for potassium resulting in the binding of EC potassium to the exposed binding sites (5) the potassium binding results in de-phosphorylation of the protein (6) the de-phos triggers change back to the protein's original conformation, with a low potassium affinity and a high sodium affinity, this causes the potassium to be released and new sodium to be picked up.
Graded Potentials
result from small changes in membrane potential due to the opening of ion channels.
Depolarization
more positive
Hyperpolarization
more negative
Summation
the ability of graded potentials to combine.
Action Potential
results when depolarization reaches the threshold potential, caused by voltage gated ion channels.
Nerve Impulses
are transmitted as subsequent regions of the membrane become depolarized, it's like a wave.
Nerve Impulse Velocity
may increase due to: myelination (allows saltatory conduction) or increased overall diameter (common in invertebrates)
Synaptic Cleft
area into which the presynaptic cell releases the products of it's synaptic vesicles via exocytosis (ex. acetylcholine)
Action Potential
Once a graded potential reaches threshold and becomes an action potential there is a release (and subsequent increase in concentration of) Ca+ ions in the cytoplasm of the presynaptic cell. This causes the synaptic vesicles to bind with the cell membrane and, through exocytosis, release their acetylcholine (or whatever NT) into the synaptic cleft where it binds with chemical or ligand gated receptor proteins on the postsynaptic cell.
EPSP
excitatory post synaptic response, they are depolarizing and typically increase gNa or decrease gK and sum up to cause an action potential; e.g. glutamate
IPSP
inhibitory postsynaptic response, produce inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), they are generally hyperpolarizing and typically increase gCl (open ligand gated channel) or gK; e.g. GABA and Glycine
Acetylcholine
is always the neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, it produces an EPSP at the NMJ.
Glutamate
an amino acid that is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate CNS.
Neurotransmitters
Epi- Adrenaline
NorEpi- fight or flight
Dopamine- body movements
Serotonin- sleep regulation
Substance P- activated by pain
Nitric Oxide- smooth muscle relaxation.
Cocaine Addiction
affects the limbic system, binds dopamine transporters and prevents the reuptake of dopamine. Dopamine remains in the synapse longer and fires pleasure pathways over and over, over timethe neurons in the limbic system will reduce the number of receptors leading to addiction.
Vertebrate Brains
all have three divisions, the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain.
Rhombencephalon
consists of the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum
Mesencephalon
consists of the optic tetum (not really a distinct anatomical area)
Prosencephalon
consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, optic chiasm, cerebrum and olfactory bulb.
Brain Evolution
as vertebrates have evolved the forebrain has become the dominant region.
Medulla Oblongata
part of the rhombencephalon, contains sensory nuclei, reticular activating system (arousal and motivation), in control of autonomic functions. Decussation occurs here.
Pons
part of the rhombencephalon, part of the RAS, involved in autonomic functions
Cerebellum
part of the rhombencephalon, involved in the coordination of movements and balance
Eye and Ear Reflexes
are processed in the mesencephalon
Thalamus
part of the diencephalon within the prosencephalon, serves as a relay station for ascending sensory and descending motor tracts, serves some autonomic functions.
Hypothalamus
part of the diencephalon within the prosencephalon, serves some autonomic functions and has some neuroendocrine control.
Basal Ganglia
part of the telencephalon within the prosencephalon, is responsible for motor control
Corpus Callosum
part of the telencephalon within the prosencephalon, connects and relays information between the two hemispheres.
Hippocampus
limbic system (pleasure), part of the telencephalon within the prosencephalon, responsible for memory and emotion.
Cerebral Cortex
part of the cerebrum which is found in the telencephalon within the prosencephalon, serves the higher cognitive functions, integrates and interprets sensory information, organizes motor output.
Sulcus
a groove or furrow on the surface of the brain, the Central sulcus divides the brain in two with the pre-central gyrus lying anterior to it and the post central gyrus lying posterior.
Pre-Central Gyrus
houses motor areas involved with the control of voluntary muscles, part of the frontal lobe
Post-Central Gyrus
houses sensory areas involved with cutaneous and other sense, part of the parietal lobe.
Gyrus
a ridge or fold between the two clefts on the surface of the brain.
4 Lobes of the Brain
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal and Occipital
Sensory Path
sensory data is sent up the ascending tracts in the spine, decussates in the medulla oblongata, and then travels to the thalamus where it is processed, the info is then sent to the cerebrum which sends out the motor commands which travel down the descending tracts of the spinal cord to their destination.
Lobes
Frontal - conscious thought, primary motor
Parietal - taste and touch, primary sensory
Temporal - auditory and olfactory
Occipital - visual
Hemisphere Lateralization
Left Brain - language, analysis, logic
Right Brain - artistic interp, music, puzzles, spatial visualization.
Myelinated Axons
form white matter in the CNS and are bundled to form nerves in the PNS
Dendrites/Cell Bodies
dendrites and cell bodies form gray matter in the CNS, cell bodies form ganglia in the PNS.
Cerebrum
interior consists primarily of white matter, aggregates of neuron cell bodies form islands of grey matter within the white matter called basal ganglia
Basal Ganglia
islands of grey matter within the white matter of the cerebrum, made up of aggregates of neuron cell bodies.
Thalamus
relays sensory information to the cerebral lobes
Hypothalamus
basic drives and emotions, pituitary control
Brain Stem
located below the hemispheres, made up of the medulla oblongata and the pons. The medulla controls circulation and respiration. the pons serves as a bridge and has relay and respiratory control
Reticular Activating Center
collections of neurons in brain stem, controls consciousness and alertness
Memory
is theorized to be dispersed throughout the brain, long term memory involves structural changes in the neural connections. ex. grassy field lovers.
Blood Brain Barrier
decreased permeability of CNS capillaries allows for more precise control of the chemicals that come into contact with CNS neurons.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
is constantly being circulated through the ventricles (in the brain), the subarachnoid space (between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater) and the central canal of the spine.
Spinal Meninges
from outermost to innermost: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, the pia mater
Meningitis
viral or bacterial infection of the meninges.
Monosynaptic Reflex
following reception and passage through the dorsal root ganglion a single synapse in the grey horn of the spinal cord is responsible for the reflex.
Polysynaptic Reflex
a series of synapses between interneurons occurs within the grey horns of the spinal cord.
The PNS
consists of nerves and ganglia
Nerves are bundles of axons bound by connective tissue
Ganglia are aggregates of neuron cell bodies
Somatic Nervous System
Effector: Skeletal Muscle motor nerves are always excited (never inhibited) and single innervation of effector cells is always the case. Acetylcholine. 1 neuron
Autonomic Nervous System
Composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, Effectors: Cardiac and Smooth muscle, Exocrine Glands, motor nerves can be excited or inhibited and innervation of effector cells is most often dual, Ach and norepi. 2 neurons
ANS Pathway
visceral receptor - visceral afferent neuron - synapse with preganglionic efferent neuron (in spine) - synapse with postganglionic efferent neuron (in vertebral or collateral ganglion) - impulse to postganglionic efferent neuron - effect innervated organ.
Preganglionic Neuron Origins
Symp - Thoracic and Lumbar regions of spine, most axons synapse in the sympathetic chains
Parasymp - Brain and Sacral region of spine, axons terminate in ganglia near or within internal organs
Autonomic Effects
are mediated by the action of G-coupled protein receptors, a conformational change of the G protein causes ion channel opening and the release of potassium ions.
Exteroceptors
detect external stimuli
Interoceptors
detect internal stimuli
Nociceptor
pain receptor
Thermoceptor
detects temperature, many more cold than warm
Mechanoreceptor
phasic (fast to adapt) or tonic (slow to adapt)
Merkle Cell
Tonic - located near skin surface, sensitive to touch pressure and duration
Ruffini Corpuscle
Tonic - near surface of skin, sensitive to touch pressure and duration
Meissner Corpuscle
Phasic - sensitive to fine touch
Pacinian Corpuscle
Phasic - pressure sensitive, deep below skin in subcutaneous tissue
Proprioceptor
mechanoreceptors that monitor muscle length and tension, provide information about body position.
Baroreceptor
mechanoreceptor that monitors blood pressure. neurons located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch detect tension and stretch in the artery walls.
Lateral Line Organ
runs the length of a fish's side, used to detect vibrations. contains a kinocilium and stereocilia within gelatinous cupula.
Stereocilia Bending
if they bend toward the kinocilium - stimulatory
if they bend away from the kinocilium - inhibitory
Inner Ear
contains both a bony labyrinth and a membranous labyrinth,
Cochlea
part of the membranous labyrinth, used for hearing
Baroreceptor
mechanoreceptor that monitors blood pressure. neurons located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch detect tension and stretch in the artery walls.
Lateral Line Organ
runs the length of a fish's side, used to detect vibrations. contains a kinocilium and stereocilia within gelatinous cupula.
Stereocilia Bending
if they bend toward the kinocilium - stimulatory
if they bend away from the kinocilium - inhibitory
Inner Ear
contains both a bony labyrinth and a membranous labyrinth, the membranous labyrinth lies within the bony labyrinth, separated by a layer of perilymph.
Cochlea
part of the membranous labyrinth, used for hearing
Organ of Corti
found within the cochlear duct, the organ of corti contains specialized structures that respond to fluid borne vibrations in the cochlea.
Utricle
one of the two otolith organs in the inner ear, senses horizontal acceleration
Saccule
one of the otolith organs in the inner ear, senses vertical acceleration