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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What symptoms would prompt a heart exam?
-chest pain
-dependent edema
Besides heart disease which disorders can generate chest pain?
-pulmonary disorders
-intestinal disorders
-musculoskeletal/Neuro disorders
-skin disorders
What are palpitations described as?
"Fluttering, skipped beats, pounding, jumping, stopping, or irregularity"
What can induce palpitations?
-other drugs
What is dyspnea?
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
-related to cardiac or pulmonary conditions
What are kinds of Dyspnea are there?
-PND (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea_
-Orthopnea (# of pillows needed)
-DOE (Dyspnea on exertion)
-Trepopnea (positional dyspnea while lying on left/right side -rare)
Syncope is:
Transient loss of consciousness due to inadequate cerebral perfusion
Causes of syncope
-Cardiac vs. non-cardiac causes
-Orthostatic hypotension
-Vasovagal syncope
-Carotid sinus syncope
Fatique is:
-Common symptom of decreased cardiac output
-Not specific for cardiac disease
-Most common causes: anxiety/depression
-Other causes: anemai & chronic diseases
Dependent Edema is:
Swelling of the legs/lower extremities
What is dependent edema the result of ?
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
_____ _____ worsens as day progresses
Symmetrical Edema
_____ precedes edema
What kind of edema do bedridden patients commonly have
sacral edema
This is most commonly due to mitral stenosis
More commonly caused by pulmonary causes & resulting in the rupture of the bronchial veins due to high back pressure in mitral stenosis this condition is _____
Where is cyanosis most commonly seen?
Finger nail beds
What is lower extremity cyanosis is termed as _____
Differential cyanosis
_____ Cyanosis is related to Left shunt through PDA (patent ductus arteriosus)
True/False Cyanosis is exclusive to cardiac conditions.
False. Cyanosis is also observed in pulmonary disorders.
These are _____
associated with ____
These are _____
Associated with _____
-Xanthelasma - yellow plaques
When inspecting the Facies you observe that your patient has wide set eyes, what kinds of dzs, do you suspect?
Congenital Heart Disease, especially pulmonic stenosis & supraventricular aortic stenosis.
Your patient has moon facies, you suspect?
pulmonary stenosis
A 53 y.o. black male patient has ear lobe creases what do you include in your differential diagnosis
Why do you inspect the facies in heart examinations?
Because heart abnormalities may be associated with peculiarities of the face & head.
While observing the fingernails of your patients' you observe splinter hemorrhages, what can they be associated with?
Infective endocarditis.
Infective Endocarditis
Petechia on Palate =
Congential Mitral Valve Prolapse
High arched palate =
You see this chest configuration...this is ___ & ___ valvular issue
-Marfan's Syndrome
-Mitral Valve Prolapse
Result of chest & heart developing at same time during embryogenesis
What areas do you auscultate on the heart
Always Pay The Man
What is the sounds is the diagphragm most useful for picking up?
High-pitched sounds
i.e. S1, S2, aortic or mitral regurgitation, pericardial friction rubs.
What sounds is the bell most useful for picking up?
Low-pitched sounds
e.g. S3, S4, mitral stenosis
How do you use the bell?
Press it gently against the skin.

Applying more pressure stretches the skin taut & results in the bell functioning like the diaphragm.
What is S3 most commonly associated with?
Left ventricular failure & is caused by blood from the left atrium.
What causes the S3 sound?
Blood from the left atrium slamming into an already overfilled ventricle during early diastolic filling.
How is S4 sound created?
The S4 is sound created by blood trying to enter a stiff, non-compliant left ventricle during atrial contraction.
What is S4 heart sound associated with?
It is most frequently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy that is the result of long standing hypertension.
What is the presence of both S3 & S4 simultaneously referred to as?
A summation gallop.