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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
scientific study of behavior and mental process
emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior
behavior perspective
focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts
emphasizes genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervious system
neuroscience/biopsychology perspective
emphasizes social interaction and cultural determinants of behavoior and mental processes
sociocultural perspective
emphasizes free will, self-actualization and h uman nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking
humanist perspective
participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect
informed consent
scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find the relationships between them
correlational research
Procedure in which both the researcher and the participants are unaware of who is in the experimental or control group
double-blind study
carfully controlled scientific procedure that involves manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect
group receiving treatment in an experiment
experimental group
observation and recording of behavior in the participants natural state or habitat
naturalistic observation
using chance methods to assign participants to experimental or control conditions, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or preexisting differences in the groups
random assignment
inactive substance or face treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical practiioner to a patient
research technique that questions a large sample of people to assess their behaviors and attitudes
focuses on thought, perception, and information processing
cognitive perspective
a long, tubelike structure that conveys impulses away from the neuron's cell body toward other neurons or to muscles or glands
branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body
layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons, which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon
cell of the nervous system responsible fore receiving and transmitting electrochemical information
chemicals releases by neurons that affect other neurons
the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system (cns)
subdivision of the nervous system (ANS) responsible for calming the body and conserving energy
parasympathetic nervous system
all nerves and neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system
innate automatic response to a stimulus
subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ans) responsible for arousing the body and mobilizing its energy during times of stress; also called the "fight or flight" system
sympahtetic nervous system
area of the brain that houses parts of the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain, and helps regulate reflex activities critical for survival (such as heartbeat and respiration)
hindbrain structure responsible for coordinating the muscle movement, balance, and some perception and cognition
thin surface layer on the cerebral hemispheres that regulates most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes
cerebral cortex
bundle of nerve fibres connecting the brains left and right hemispheres
corpus callosum
two lobes at the front of the brain governing motor control, speech production, and higher functions, such as thinking, personality, emotions, and memory
frontol lobes
interconnected groups of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory
limbic system
two lobes at the back of the brain responsible for vision and visual perception
occipital lobes
two lobes at the top of the brain where bodili sensations are interpreted
parietal lobes
diffuse set of neurons that screens incoming information and controls arousal
reticular formation
two lobes on each side of the brain above the ears involved in audition (hearing), language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control
temporal lobes
Forced choice between two or more incompatible goals or impulses
sely's three phase (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion) reaction to severe stress
general adaptation syndrome (gas)
small problems of daily living that accumulate and sometimes becaome a major souce of stress
nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it, the arousal, both physical and mental, to situations or events that we perceive as threatening or challenging
behaviour characteristics including intence ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical, hostile outlook
type A personality
studies how biological, psuchological, and social factors affect health and illness
health psychology
coping strategies based on changing one's perceptions of stressful situations
emotion-focused forms of coping
coping strategies that use problem-solving strategies to decrease or eliminate the source of stress
problem focued forms of coping
mental activities requiring minimal attention and having little impact on other activities
automatic processes
mental activities requiring focused attention that generally interfere with other ongoing activities
controlled prcesses
biological changes that occur on a 24 hour cycle (circa = "about" and dies = "day"
circadian rhythms
the true, unconscious meaning of a dream, according to Freudian dream theory
latent content
according to the freud, the surface content of a dream, which contains dream symbols that distort and disguise the dream's true meaning
manifest content
abrupt awakenings from NREM (non repid eye movement) sleep acompanied by intence arousal and feelings of panic
night terrors
anxiety-arousing dreams generally occurring near the end of the sleep cycle, during REM sleep
broad term describing a compulsion to use a specific drug or engage in a certain activity
psychoactive drugs that act on the central nervous system to suppress or slow bodily processes and reduce overall responsiveness
drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to the drug user or others
drug abuse
drugs that produce sensory or perceptual distortions called hallusinations
bodily processes have been so modified by repeated use of a drug that continued use is requred to prevent withdrawal symptoms
physical dependence
desire or craving to achieve the effects produced by a drug
psychological dependence
drugs that act on the brain and nercous system to increase their overall activity and general responsiveness
decreased sensitivity to a drug brought about by its continuous use
discomfort and distress, including physical pain and intense cravings, experienced after stopping the use of addictive drugs
a trancelike state of heightened suggestibility deep relaxation, and intense focus
learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR)
classical conditioning
gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed, the interval (time) is fixed
fixed interval
reinforement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed
fixed ratio
taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and make it more likely to recur
negative reinforcement
learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences (also known as instrumental or Skinnerian conditioning)
operant conditioning
some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced
partial (or intermittent) schedule of reinforcement
adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
positive reinforcement
weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
reinforcement occurs unpredictably, the interval (time) varies
variable interval (VI)
reinforcement occurs unpredictably, the ratio (number or amount) varies
variable ratio
sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution
hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs
latent learning
learning new behavior or information by watching others (also known as social learning or modeling)
observational learning
linking new information to previously stored material (also known as deeper levels of processing)
elaborative rehearsal
a part of explicit/declarative memory that stores memories of personality experienced events, a mental diary of a person's life.
episodic memory
subsystem within long-term memory that consists of unconscious procedural skills simpl classically conditioned responses, and priming
implicit (nondeclarative) memory
third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time, its capacity is virtually, limitless, and its duration is relatively permanent
long-term memory (LTM)
repeating information over and over to maintain it in short-term memory (STM)
maintenance rehearsal
retrieving a memory using a general cue
first memory stage that holds sensory information, relatively large capacity, but duration is only a few seconds
sensory memory
second memory stage that temorarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM), capacity is limited to five to nine items and duration is about 30 seconds
short-term memory (STM)
process by which neural changes associated with recent learning become durable and stable
practice (or study) sessions that are interspersed with rest periods
distributed practice
time spent learning is grouped (or massed) into long, unbroken intervals (aslo known as cramming)
massed practice
old information interferes with remembering new information; forward-acting interference
proactive interference
learning material a second time, which usually takes less time than original learning (also called the savings method)
new information interferes with remembering old information, backward-acting interference
retroactive interference
feeling that specific information is stored in long-term memory but of being temporarily unable to retrieve it
tip of the tongue phenomenon
progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss
alzheimer's disease (AD)