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39 Cards in this Set

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1. Generally, the deleterious effects caused by inbreeding are due to
a. An increase in genetic variability that disrupts developmental sequences
b. An increase in homozygosity of recessive deleterious alleles
c. An increase in allozygosity of all alleles
d. An increase in mutation rate
b. An increase in homozygosity of recessive deleterious alleles
2. A haplotype is best defined as the ______________.
a. Multilocus genotype of a chromosome or gamete
b. ABO blood type conferred by an individual gamete
c. Haploid genotypes of all the gametes produced by a diploid individual
d. Genotype of either the paternal or maternal chromosomal complement
a. Multilocus genotype of a chromosome or gamete
3. Which of the following breaks up or removes linkage disequilibrium form a population
a. Sexual reproduction
b. Genetic drift
c. Selection
d. Migration
a. Sexual reproduction
4. Selection on multilocus genotypes in random-mating populations leads to linkage
disequilibrium when __________________.
a. It eliminates all haplotypes from a population
b. Some allele combinations confer greater fitness than do others
c. It prevents crossing-over during meiosis
d. It reduces mutation rates
b. Some allele combinations confer greater fitness than do others
5. Complete the following sentence: When the narrow-sense heritability is calculated using similarities between parents and offspring, it will correspond to:
a. The slope of linear regression between the average phenotype of the two parents and the phenotype of the offspring
b. The degree to which all of the offspring resemble their parents in a population.
c. The correlation between present generation family members.
d. None of the above.
a. The slope of linear regression between the average phenotype of the two parents and the phenotype of the offspring
6. The relationship between selection differential, response to selection, and heritability is best described as ________.
a. h2 = S X R
b. S = R x h2
c. The stronger the selection differential, the less the heritability
d. The response to selection is highest when both heritability and the selection differential are high
d. The response to selection is highest when both heritability and the selection differential are high
7. Which of the following accurately characterize (s) Muller’s ratchet model for the
selective advantage of sexual reproduction?
a. Drift establishes linkage disequilibrium because genotypes with few
mutations are eliminated by chance events
b. In populations without sexual reproduction, deleterious mutations
accumulate, eventually imposing such a burden that the population goes extinct
c. Sex is favored selectively because it recreates the zero-mutation genotypes lost due to drift
d. All of the above correctly characterize Muller’s ratchet for the evolution of sexual reproduction
d. All of the above correctly characterize Muller’s ratchet for the evolution of sexual reproduction
8. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping can tell us which of the following
a. The number of loci that influence a quantitative trait
b. The location of QTL in the genome
c. The identifiy of QTL and the proteins they encode
d. Both the number of loci that influence a quantitative trait and the location of QTL in the genome
e. All of these.
d. Both the number of loci that influence a quantitative trait and the location of QTL in the genome
9. Which statement is correct?
a. Females are always choosy, and males are always competitive.
b. Which sex is choosy or competitive usually depends on the strength
of sexual selection for each sex.
c. Males are always choosy, and females are always competitive.
b. Which sex is choosy or competitive usually depends on the strength of sexual selection for each sex.
10. Felsensteins method of independent phylogenetic contrasts is a method ________.
a. Of controlling for phylogenetic relatedness in comparative studies
b. Of performing comparisons between individuals during observational
studies
c. Of calculating a test statistic for experimental studies
d. Using for comparative studies when phylogenies are not completely
known
a. Of controlling for phylogenetic relatedness in comparative studies
11. Which of these conclusions cannot be drawn from the tephritid fly experiment shown above?
THERE IS IMAGE
a. The markings on tephritid fly wings are probably an anti-predator adaptation
b. Both wing-waving and wing markings are required for jumping spiders to
retreat
c. Jumping spiders will retreat from marked wings, the wing waiving is
not necessary
d. The wing-waving behavior of tephritid flies is probably an anti-predator adaptations
c. Jumping spiders will retreat from marked wings, the wing waiving is not necessary
12. The chief prediction of the sensory exploitation hypothesis fro female choice is that
a. Female preferences for male trait evolves before male trait itself
b. The males with the best ornaments or advertisements provide the best genetic benefits to the female’s offspring.
c. The males with the best ornaments or advertisements provide nutrients, protection. Or some other benefit to females
d. The second and third answers are both correct
a. Female preferences for male trait evolves before male trait itself
13. The graphs below illustrate the results of Schemske and Agren's studies of female flower size in Begonia involucrata. The bar graph illustrates the number of
pollinator visits made to artificial flowers of three sizes; "mean" is the average
male flower size. The scatterplot illustrates the relationship between the area of the petaloid sepals (the "blossom") and the number of female flowers per inflorescence. Which of the following correctly interprets these results?
a. Female begonias are under directional selection for increased flower size:
bees prefer large flowers to small flowers
b. Female begonias are under directional selection fro reduced flower size:
plants can produce a larger number of smaller flowers than larger flowers
c. Female begonias are under directional selection for increased flower size:
larger flowers set more seeds than do smaller flowers
d. The first two choices are correct
d. The first two choices are correct
14. In tiny Hyalella amphipods the makes carry females while mating, using large, clawlike appendages. Females prefer mates with larger appendages. When a
predator (the larval dragonfly) attacks the pair, females that mated with larger
males were much less likely to be eaten by predators. Which model of female choice is the best fit for this example?
a. Direct benefits
b. Good genes
c. Runaway selection
d. Sensory bias
a. Direct benefits
15. The coefficient of relatedness (r) calculates
a. the absolute number of genes shared by any two individuals.
b. differences in the proportion of genes shared by siblings versus cousins.
c. the probability that any two individuals share genes that are identical
by descent.
d. the likelihood that certain offspring were sired by a particular male.
e. the overall contribution of kinship to the emergence of certain behavioral patterns.
c. the probability that any two individuals share genes that are identical
by descent.
_________ results in the creation of new combinations of alleles during sexual reproduction.
Genetic Recombination
The fitness burden caused by the accumulation of deleterious mutations in a population is referred to as the _________
Genetic Load
The __________ is difference between the mean value of
a trait in the entire population, and the mean value of the individuals that breed
successfully
selection differential
In ___________ selection individuals with intermediate values of a
trait have the highest fitness and variation is reduced.
stabilizing
_______ may be defined as the differential reproductive success that is solely due to the ability to attract mates.
Sexual selection
____ is the total reproductive success of an individual, including reproduction by the individual and also reproduction by related kin.
Inclusive fitness
A population is described as being in linkage _____ when genotypes at one locus are randomly distributed with respect to the genotypes at another
locus.
equilibrium
The mode of reproduction where an offspring develops from an unfertilized egg is called ______.
Parthenogenesis
___ is the term used for a behavior that results in fitness losses for both
the actor and the recipient.
Spite
The _______________is the probability that the
alleles at any particular locus in two different individuals are identical by descent
from a common ancestor
coefficient of relatedness
The blending of gene pools that occurs when two different populations meet.
B. Population admixture
The difference between mean value of offspring, and mean value of the previous generation.
C. Response to selection
Trait that increases the fitness of its possessor.
F. Adaptation
Situation in which evolution of increased fitness of one trait causes a reduced fitness in another trait.
E. Trade-off
Any consistent difference between males and females of a species.
I. Sexual dimorphism
The energy and time expended in creating and caring for offspring.
H. Parental investment
Natural selection that favors the spread of alleles that increase reproduction by related individuals.
J. Indirect fitness or K. Kin selection
18 What is the red queen hypothesis?
The red queen hypothesis refers to a changing-environment theory of sex
that involves an evolutionary arms race between parasites and their hosts.
Parasites and their hosts are in a continued struggle. Hosts continually evolve to defend themselves against the parasites and parasites respond by evolving to better invade the host. Sex evolved to provide genetic variation in the host in response to parasitic infection.
19 Why are marker alleles useful to study even though they do not actually affect the
traits being studied? Explain in your own words using the logic underlying QTL mapping.
The usefulness of marker alleles is simply that they allow an easy way to track the presence of other, closely linked, alleles. The basic logic of QTL mapping is that if enough marker alleles are studied, distributed across all chromosomes, then some of the marker alleles are likely to be closely linked to loci affect the quantitative trait. These marker alleles will be statistically associated with variation in phenotype-e.g. the presence of that particular marker allele will statistically explain part of the variation in the trait. By scanning large number of marker alleles for statistical associations with phenotype, researchers can identify particular regions of the genome that include the actual loci affecting the trait.
20 Using the choices of mathematical terms listed below write the equation for
calculating broad-sense heritability. What is the formula for narrow sense heritability? Describe one method by which narrow sense heritability can be estimated.
Broad-sense Heritability: H = VG / (VG + VE)
Narrow-sense heritability: h2 = VA / VA +VD + VE

Narrow-sense heritability, symbolized as h2, is an estimate of the amount of phenotypic variation in a population that is due to additive genetic variation. It can be calculated as the slope of the best-fit line of a scatterplot of the mid-parent value versus mid-offspring value.
21 Describe how Huey et al. tested the hypothesis that garter snakes behaviorally thermoregulate by identifying (1) what important feature(s) of the environment they monitored; (2) what specific prediction they made about the snakes' behavior; and (3) how they demonstrated that the snakes' behavior was not random.
1. The environmental features that the authors studied were rock thickness, burrows and open ground.
2. They predicted that snakes would choose their nighttime retreats adaptively. That is they would select rocks of medium thickness.
3. They compared the availability of different thickness rocks at their study site with the nighttime retreats chosen by the radio-implanted snakes. If the snakes selected rocks at random then they should select rocks of different thickness equally. This was not the case; snakes selected medium side rocks significantly more often than either thin or thick rocks.
22 In bats, what is the evidence that social group size is correlated with testes size? What were the methods used in data analysis?
Hosken (1998) tested the hypothesis that large testes are an adaptation for sperm competition. He tested the prediction that bats in large social groups would evolve larger testes because females in these groups would have more opportunities for multiple mattings and therefore males would
experience more intense sperm competition. To test this prediction he compared 17 species of bat in terms of testes size and social group size. However, he also had to remove the effects of phylogeny. He did this by using Felsenstein’s method of independent contrasts. Using this methodology he determined that indeed testes size did increase with social group size, thus supporting the sperm competition hypothesis.
23 Using the example of marine iguanas, describe the evidence that shows that male iguanas are larger than females due to sexual selection through male-male competition rather than due to natural selection
Work by Wikelski et al. demonstrated natural selection on body size on two islands. They found that selection was stabilizing ndd that mid-sized iguanas survived at higher rates than small or large individuals. The authors found evidence for the hypothesis that food availability limited body size and determined the largest sizes that iguanas could maintain their weight under natural selection. However, large male iguanas are demonstrably larger than this "optimum" body size, and have reduced
survival. Furthermore, large males have more mates and more offspring than small males. In marine iguanas, large males have a definite advantage in combat with other males for access to females. These
observations support the hypothesis that large size in male iguanas is due to male-male competition.
24 What is Hamilton’s rule? What are its three mathematical terms and how are they calculated?
Hamilton's rule states that an allele for altruistic behavior should spread if Br - C > 0. B is the benefit to the recipient, and C is the cost to the actor, both measured as number of surviving offspring. r is the coefficient of relatedness; it is the probability that two homologous alleles in actor and recipient are identical by descent. (Equivalently, it is also the percentage of the genome that the actor and recipient are likely to share.) r is calculated by tracing each possible pathway of relatedness between two individuals; every step between parent and offspring represents a 0.5 probability of any allele being shared. The probability for a whole path is (0.5) <n where n is the number of steps. Finally, the probabilities for each separate path are summed. (See pp. 2-4 for a review of this topic.)