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239 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the blood supply to the scrotum?
Perineal a.
Pudendal a.
Cremaster a.
What is the lymphatic drainage of the scrotum?
Superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
What is the blood supply to the testis?
Testicular a. (from abdominal aorta)
Testicular veins (pampiniform plexus)
What is the drainage of the testis?
R and left lumbar (caval/aortic) and preaortic lymph nodes.
Which form of hernia is more common in men than women?
Which form of hernia is more common in men older than 40?
How can you find the omental foramen? WHere is it?
It is posterior to the free edge of the hepatoduodenal ligament and can be located by running a finger along the gallbladder to the free edge of the lesser omentum.
What are the anterior boundaries of the omental foramen?
Portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct (in hepatoduodenal ligament)
What are the posterior boundaries of the omental foramen?
IVC, Right crus of the diaphragm (covered with parietal peritoneum)
What are the superior boundaries of the omental foramen?
Caudate lobe of the liver (covered with visceral peritoneum)
What are the inferior boundaries of the omental foramen?
Superior part or first part of the duodenum, portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct.
How do materials from the hepatorenal pouch get to the infracolic compartment?
Through the right paracolic gutter because the phrenicocolic ligament on the left blocks flow to the left paracolic gutter.
Where are the gastrohepatic and hepato duodenal ligaments derived from?
Ventral mesogastrium.
Where are the gastrosplenic, gastrophrenic, splenicorenal, and phrenicosplenic ligaments derived from?
Dorsal mesogastrium.
What controls bile flow in the hepatopancreatic ampulla?
The sphincter of Oddi.
What cells give the pancreas its exocrine function?
Acinar cells (pancreatic enzymes)
What cells give the pancreas its endocrine function?
Pancreatic islets (insulin, glucagon)
Where is the spleen located?
Left hypochondrium or LUQ
What two ligaments surround the splenic artery and vein?
Splenorenal and gastrosplenic ligaments.
What is another name for Ampulla of Vater?
Hepatopancreatic ampula.
What are the derivatives of the hepatic diverticulum?
Liver, gall bladder, biliary apparatus.
What does the splanchnic mesenchyme of the ventral mesentary form in the derivatives of the foregut?
CT, endothelial cells, hemopoetic tissue, kupffer cells.
What does the smaller ventral bud of the pancreas form?
Uncinate process and part of the head.
What serves as the axis of the midgut loop's rotation?
Superior mesenteric artery.
What is the congenital basis for umbilico-ileal fistula?
Persistence of the yolk stalk
What surrounds an omphalmoceole?
Epithelium of umbilical cord around the portion of the small intestine that failed to return to the abdominal cavity.
What is an umbilical hernia due to?
Defect in the closure of the umbilicus.
When does an umbilical hernia develop?
After successful return of the intestine to the abdominal cavity.
What surrounds the herniated mass in an umbilical hernia?
What is the location/how does the urorectal septum form?
It is comprised of folds of embryonic mesodermal tissue that fuses and grows toward the cloacal membrane, separating the allantois and the cloaca.
What are the lymphatics that supply the portion of the anal canal above the pectinate line?
Lumbar lymph nodes.
What is the innervation of the anal canal above teh pectinatel line?
Autonomics, stretch sensation supplied by sympathetics.
What is the blood supply of the anal canal below the pectinate line derived from?
Branches of internal iliac.
WHat is the lymphatic supply of the anal canal below the pectinate line derived from?
Inguinal lymph nodes.
What is the innervation of the anal canal below the pectinate line?
Somatic, pain sensation via spinal nerves.
What causes anal stenosis?
Dorsal deviation of the urorectal septum.
Where do sympathetics innervating the gut synapse?
Usually in Pre vertebral ganglia, they pass through para vertebral ganglia.
What is the origin of the coronary and triangular ligaments?
Reflections of the ventral mesentery onto the diaphragm.
What is the origin of the visceral peritoneum of the liver?
Ventral mesentary
Which nerve runs laterally through the knee?
Common fibular.
Which nerve runs medially through the knee?
Saphenous nerve.
What are the 3 things injured in the unhappy triad?
ACL, MCL, medial meniscus
What artery supplies the ACL and PCL?
Middle genicular artery
What skin does the saphenous nerve supply?
Medial calf to ankle.
How does the saphenous nerve enter the ankle?
Anterior to the medial malleolus.
What actions does the common fibular nerve innervate?
Dorsiflexion and eversion.
What skin does the superficial fibular nerve innervate?
Dorsal surface of the foot.
What nerve innervates the tips of the does and nailbeds?
Plantar nerves.
What nerve innervates the skin between toes 1+2?
Great fibular
What nerve innervates quadratus femorus? What is the origin of this nerve?
Femoral nerve
What nerve innervates Gastrocnemius and soleus?
S2,S3 nerve
If a patient is having their left hip drop every time they lift their foot off of the ground which side is affected and what is affected?
The righ side gluteus minimis and medius are affected.
What nerve supplies gluteus medius and minimus?
Superior gluteal
Where does the superior gluteal nerve run?
Superior to piriformis and between gluteus medius and minimis
What is the origin of Superior gluteal nerve?
What foramen does the pudendal nerve leave through?
Through the lesser sciatic foramen to go into the pudendal canal.
What structure forms the pudendal canal?
Obturator internis.
What does the inferior rectal artery branch off of?
Internal pudendal just before it enters the pudendal canal.
What is in the anterior compartment of the leg?
Anterior tibialis
Anterior tibial artery
Deep fibular nerve
What does the deep fibular nerve supply that is not in the anterior compartment?
What artery supplies the anterior compartment?
Anterior tibial artery.
What do enteroendocrine cells mainly secrete?
What does serotonin do in the gut?
Stimulates peristalsis by activating mesenteric cells
What plexus does the stomach lack?
The submucosal plexus
How can you tell you are in the appendix?
Peyer's patches on all sides not just opposite to where the mesentary attaches.
What type of epithelium are found in the anal canal?
Simple cuboidal, stratified squamous non-keratinized, stratified squamous keratinized.
What type of epithelium lines the appendix?
Simple columnar with goblet cells.
What do paneth cells secrete and what does this do?
Lysozyme, kills bacteria
Does the large intestine have villi?
Where does the pudendal nerve originate from?
The sacral plexus S2-S4
What are the 2 terminal branches of the pudendal nerve?
Perineal nerve and dorsal nerve of the penis or clitoris
What ligament does the internal pudendal artery curve around?
The sacrospinous ligament.
What vessel pierces the wall of the pudendal canal?
The inferior rectal artery.
Where is the perineal body located in females?
Between the vagina and anus.
What attaches to the perineal body?
External anal sphincter
Superficial transverse perineal muscle
Anterior fibers of levator ani
Where does the superior rectum drain?
To the pararectal lymph nodes
What does the inferior rectum drain?
Sacral nodes.
What are the inferior/superior borders of the superficial perineal pouch?
Inferiorly=perineal fascia (colles)
superiorly = perineal membrane.
What does camper's fascia become in the scrotum?
What does Scarpa's fascia become in the scrotum?
Colles fascia
What is found in the superficial pouch?
Superficial transverse perineal muscle
Cura of penis/clitoris
Bulb of penis/vestibular bulbs
Greater vestibular bulbs (female)
What is found in the deep pouch?
Membranous portion of the urethra
External urethral sphincter
Deep transverse perineal muscle
Bulbourethral gland
What veins does the internal pudendal vein recieve?
Perineal and inferior hemorrhoidal veins
Does the pudendal nerve pierce the pelvic diaphragm?
What do the deep arteries of the penis/clitoris link up with?
Crura in the superficial pouch
What is the capsule taht surrounds the liver called?
Glisson's capsule.
Frow where to where does the inguinal ligament run?
Pubic tubercle to ASIS
In what organ's epithelium are clear and brush cells found?
Gall Bladder.
Describe the path of blood from the sinusoids on out of the liver.
Sinusoids to central vein to sublobular vein to collecting vein to left/right hepatic veins
What is the space of Disse AKA?
Perisinusoidal space.
Do hepatocytes contact blood?
NO only plasma
Where are ito cells found? What do they do?
They are in the space of Disse. They concentrate vitamin A.
Describe the path of bile from the hepatocytes on out.
Bile canaliculi to Bile ductules (canals of herring) to portal bile ducts to hepatic bile ducts
Which duct looks like a "string of pearls"?
Portal bile ducts.
Describe the flow of pancreatic enzymes out from the pancreaticoacinar cells.
Intercalated ducts to intralobular ducts to interlobular ducts to main pancreatic ducts
Does the gall bladder have a muscularis interna?
What cells are small, stellate shaped and clear in the pancreas? What do they do?
Centroacinar cells Secrete bicarbonate.
What prompts centroacinar cells to release bicarbonate?
Where are pancratic islets of langerhans most numerous?
In the tail of the pancreas.
What innervates iliopsoas?
What are the attachments of the crus of the diaphram?
Which crus forms the ligament of Treitz?
Right crus.
At what level do the left and right renal arteries branch off?
What is another name for renal capsule?
Gerota's capsule.
What is the pubovesicular ligament called in males?
Puboprostatic ligament
What are the two grooves on either side of the bladder called?
Paravesicular fossae.
What is the only "pouch" in the male pelvis?
Retctovesical pouch*
Which part of the broad ligament is continuos with the germinal layer and covering of the suspensory ligament of the ovary?
What structures are in the broad ligament?
Uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, ligament of the ovary, ovarian and uterine arteries, round ligament of the uterus.
In which part of the pelvis is the prostate located?
False pelvis
Which part of the pelvis is the rectum located?
Both true and false pelvis
Where does the bladder trigone arise from embryologically?
The mesonephric duct
What secretes proteins, enzymes, fructose, flavin ,citrate, prostaglandins and mucoid lubrication?
Seminal vesicles
What peritoneum covers the uterine tubes?
The mesosalpinx
What peritoneum is the germinal layer of the ovary?
What bones does the urogenital diaphram connect?
Pubic rami
From where to where does iliococcygeous run?
From tendonous arch to the coccyx
What nerve supplies levator ani?
S4 of coccygeal plexus and sometimes pudendal nerve (S2-S4)
Which branches off of which, the uterine artery or the vaginal artery?
The uterine artery branches off of the vaginal artery.
What is the origin of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh?
What is the origin of the posterior cutaneous nerve?
What does the tensor fascia latae connect?
ASIS and iliotibial tract
What is the origin of the sciatic nerve?
From the sacral plexus L4-S3
What foramen does the sciatic nerve pass through?
Greater sciatic foramen
Where does the sciatic nerve get its blood supply from?
Inferior gluteal artery
Where is teh adductor tubercle found?
On the medial condyle of the femur.
What forms the saphenous hiatus?
Fascia latae
What sort of nerve is the saphenous nerve?
Pure sensory.
What do the perforating arteries supply? Where are they coming from?
They come from the deep artery of the thigh to supply the hamstring muscles in the posterior compartment.
Where does the deep femoral artery split from the femoral?
After the inguinal ligament.
Trace the divisions of the femoral artery into the leg.
Femoral -> Deep femoral and Popliteal
Popliteal->Anterior and posterior tibial
Posterior Tibial ->Fibular artery
What are the 2 nerves in teh femoral canal?
Nerve to vastus medialis and saphenous nerve
What muscles are found in the anterior compartment of the lower limb?
Vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris, sartorius, tensor fascia latae
What muscles are found in the medial compartment of the thigh?
Adductor longus, Adductor brevis, adductor magnus, Gracilis and pectineus
What muscles are found in the posterior compartment of the thigh?
Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus.
What compartment is the popliteus muscle in?
No compartment.
What muscles are in the anterior compartment of the leg?
Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallicus longus, fibularis tertius.
What muscles are in the posterior superficial compartment of the leg?
Gascrocnemius, plantaris, soleus
What muscles are found in the deep posterior compartment of the leg?
Tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallicus longus
What muscles are found in the lateral compartment of the leg?
Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis
What is active insufficiency?
A muscle cannot act across two joints at the same time
What stage are eggs in before puberty?
Metaphase II
What stage is the primary oocyte in?
Diplotene stage of Prophase I
What stage is the secondary oocyte in?
Metaphase II
What do theca luteal cells develop from?
Theca interna
What are atretic follicles?
Follicles that are degrading
What inhibits FSH release?
High Estrogen levels
What hormone causes nabothian cysts?
Where is the peritubular network found?
In the cortical labrynth
Which is darker staining cortex or medulla?
What increases aldosterone release?
What decreases ADH and aldosterone release?
ANF Atrio nio(....) factor
Distinguish between the contents of the inner medullary and outer medullary zone of J-G nephrons.
Inner = THIN segments of henle + Collecting Ducts
Outer = THICK AND THIN segments of henle + collecting ducts
What makes up a renal lobule?
One medullary ray plus its cortical labyrinth.
What part of the nephron is impermeable to water?
Ascending limb of loop of henle and the distal tubule.
What part of the nephron responds to ADH?
The collecting duct
Where are intraglomular mesangial cells found?
Within the filtration slit between processes of podocytes.
What supplies blood to the medullary region?
Vasa recta.
Where do efferent arterioles of cortical nephrons drain?
Into peritubular cappliary network to interlobular veins.
Where do efferent arterioles of J-G nephrons drain?
INto vasa recta to arcuate veins.
Is the parietal layer of the bowman's capsule inner or outer?
Inner layer
What is the origin of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh?
What is the origin of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh?
What forms the angle of inclination?
Head and neck of femur
What artery can you palpate on the posterior aspect of the knee?
Posterior tibial
What type of nerve is the saphenous nerve?
Pure sensory
What compartment is pectineus a part of?
Medial compartment
WHat compartment is the Tensor fascia latae a part of?
Anterior compartment
What compartment does the popliteus muscle lie in?
What compartment is fibularis tertius in?
Anterior compartment
How many plantar interosseus muscles are there?
How many dorsal interosseus muscles are there?
What is the origin of the planter arteries?
Posterior tibial artery
What dermatome is the lateral side of the foot in?
What dermatome is the medial 3 toes/ shin in?
What dermatome is the medial half of the big toe in?
What are the two major dermatomes on the posterior side of the leg?
S1 and S2
Where is the ischo femoral ligament and what does it resist?
Posterior, resists flexion of hip joint
Where is the pubofemoral ligament and what does it resist?
It is from the pubus to proximal femur and it resists ABduction of hip
Which ligament attaches to the intertrochantic line?
Iliofemoral or Y ligament
What does the iliofemoral ligament resist?
Resists extension of the hip
What muscle do the ureters lie on proximal to the kidneys?
On the psoas muscle
In a cross section what will levator ani be around?
The rectum
What does the tendon of obturator internis wrap around?
Ishchial spine
What is found to either side of the rectum in a cross section that includes levator ani muscles?
Ishioanal fossae
What do Mox-1, N-Myc, Hoxc9 do?
Nephron differentiation and glomerulus formation in metanephric kidney.
What TFs induces ureteric bud formation and makes epithelial cells?
PAX-2, BF-2, WNT-2
What do FGF-2, BMP-7 and LIF do?
Aggregate blastema
What TFs are needed for nephron differentiation and glomerulus formation in metanephric kidney?
Mox-1, N-Myc,Hoxc9
What do PAX-2, BF-2, WNT-2 do?
Induce ureteric bud formation, make epithelial cells
What TF are needed to aggregate blastema?
What does LIM-2 do?
Aggregates mesenchyme cells iinto nephric duct.
What TFs are needed for formation of the mesonephros?
LIM-2, PAX-2, Wt-1
What is WT-1 necessary for besides regulating GDNF?
Mesonephric tubule formation.
What is the epithelium of the lower urinary tract derived from?
Hindgut endoderm
What do the mesonephros develop from? (tissue)
Intermediate mesoderm at thoracolumbar region.
What do the metanephros develop from? (tissue)
Intermediate mesoderm at the sacral level.
What forms the uniferous tubule?
Ureteric bud and metanephric blastema
What does the bladder form from?
Vesicle part of UG sinus.
What is the major origin of the bladder (tissue type)?
Hindgut endothelium.
What part of urinary development forms part of the male genital duct system?
Mesonephric duct
In what glands does benign prostatic hypertrophy take place?
Mucosal glands
What glands secrete into the prostatic sinus?
main glands
What glands are involved in prostate cancer?
Main glands.
What serves to demarkate the transition of epithelium in the urethra?
Fossa navicularis
What inhibits FSH?
Inhibin from sertoli cells
What forms the male utricle?
Mullerian or paramensonephric duct.
What does FSH prompt in males?
Sertoli cells to produce androgen binding protein
What type of epithelium are in tubuli recti?
Sertoli cells and simple cuboidal epithelium
What type of epithelium are in rete testis?
Simple cuboidal epithelium
What type of epithelium are in efferent ductules?
Alternating tall ciliated columnar with low cuboidal epithelium. (sawtooth)
What do the tubuli recti do?
Transport sperm from apex of sertoli cells to rete testis (Straight)
What type of epithelium is found in the epididymus?
Pseudostratified columnar epithlium, Basal (stem) and principal (steriociliated) cells
Describe the lumen of ductus deferens. How about its muscular layer?
Large stellate lumen, very thick muscularis.
What type of epithelium is found in the ductus deferens?
Pseudostratified columnar with no cilia.
What type of epithelium is in the ejaculatory duct?
Simple columnar epithelium with no muscularis.
What part of the male anatomy has a honeycomb appearance?
Seminal vesicles
What is the transition of epithelium from young to old in the prostate?
Simple columnar to cuboidal epithelium
What type of epithelium is the tunica vaginalis?
Simple cuboidal
What make up prostatic concretions?
Calcified glycoproteins
According to crissman what gland raises the pH of the vagina?
What does BMP-4 do?
Controls cells migrating into urogenital ridge.
What is required to proliferate germ cells in the gonad?
What TF are expressed during indifferent gonad formation?
What does the vestibule form from?
Pelvic part of terminal UG sinus
What forms the epididymus (TF)?
What gene promotes the TF that are required for the formation of the ductus deferens?
What TF forms the prostate?
What gene is necessary to form the paramesonephric duct?
Which ducts form the broad ligament by migrating?
Mullerian or paramesonephric
Which sex cords do females and males use?
Females = cortical cords
Males = primary sex cords
What forms the seminal vesicle?
The mesonephric duct
What forms the urethral seam?
Endoderm of urethral plate from the phallic portion of the urogenital sinus.
What artery does the inferior hypogastric plexus lie on?
Internal iliac
What is the origin of endometrial epithelium?
Coelomic mesothelium. (inside paramesonephric cord?)
What is the origin of the epithelium of the vestibule of the vagina?
Urogenital sinus epithelium (phallic part)
What is the origin of Follicular or sertoli cells?
Coelomic mesothelium
What does the perineal nerve innervate?
Skin of posterior scrotum/labia majora
Skin over perineal body
Ischiocavernosus muscle
Skin over the greater vestibular gland
What is the origin of intersitial cells of leydig?
Mesenchyme of intermediate mesoderm.