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59 Cards in this Set

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greek roots - "old" & "stone"
"Old Stone Age"
tool making techniques that evolved out of the Oldowan or pebble tradition that lasted until abou 15,000 yrs ago
Lower Paleolithic
associated with H. erectus
Middle Paleolithic
associated with archaic H. sapiens, including the Neandertals of Western Europe and Mid East
Upper Paleoplithic
associated with early members of our own subspecies H. sapiens sapiens, anatomically modern humans
an object produced or shaped by human craft, especially a tool, weapon, or ornament of archaeological or historical interest; any human alteration of the environment; anything that has been made
Mousterian flakes
Middle Paleolthic toolmaking tradition associated with Neandertals; bigger flakes and blades than acheulian, pressure on edges and grinding; hunting, needles, etc
homo sapiens sapiens
the subspecies of the genus Homo in which modern humans are classified
homo sapiens neanderthalensis
extinct robust human of middle paleolithic in europe and western asia; most famous homo sapiens; first found in germany in 1840's-before Darwin; named for valley where they were found; not all that stupid
AMHs (anatomically modern humans)
includes the Cro-Magnons of Europe (31000B.P.) and the older fossils from Skhul(100,000) and Qafzeh(92000); continues through the present; also known as H. sapiens sapiens
"superior homo sapiens sapiens that outwitted the neanderthals"; coexisted with Neanderthals for a long time; no evidence of battles among them
Upper Paleolithic cave art
period of rapid change in culture; cultural Renaissance; cave art found in France (religious shrines for hunters?)
Venus Figurines
sensuous stick figures; strong ideas of what they were trying to make; used for initiation rituals? or to teach about birth and reproduction?
transitional period between Paleolithic and Neolithic; characterized by adaptation to a hunting, collecting, and fishing economy based on the use of forest, lakeside, and seashore environments
more game hunters; people spread from asia to us (reason for many languages in US)
punctuated equilibrium
Model of evolution; long perods of equilibrium, during which species change little, are interrupted by sudden changes--evolutionary jumps
derived from the French village of St. Acheul, where these tools were first identified;lower paleolithic tool tradition associated with Homo erectus; knocking flakes off tools, then chipping flakes off
middle paleolithic tool-making tradition associated with Neandertals
Eve hypothesis
Mitochondrial DNA - mother to daughter; hypothesizing all descended from one common ancestor - Eve - who travelled out of Africa
stone technology based on a projectile point that was fastened to the end of a hunting spear; it flourished between 12,000 and 11,000B.P. in North America
Broad Spectrum revolution
Period beginning around 20,000B.P. in the Middle East and 12,000B.P. in europe, during which a wider range, or broader spectrum, of plant and animal life was hunted, gathered, collected, caught, and fished; revolutionary because it led to food production
food production
cultivation of plans and domestication (stock breeding) of animals; first developed in the Middle East 10,000 to 12,000 years ago
Hilly flanks
Woodland zone that flanks the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to the north; zone of wild wheat and barley and of sedentism (settled, nonmigratory life) preceding food production
settled (sedentary) life; preceded food production in the Old World and followed it in the New World
state (nation-state)
Complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, welath, prestige, and power. an independent, centrally organized political unit; a government. A form of social and political organization with a formal, central government and a division of society into classes
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure. A rank society in which relations among villages as well as among individuals are unequal, with smaller villages under the authority of leaders in larger villages; has a two-level settlement hierarchy
early mesopotamian writing that used a stylus (writing implement) to write wedge-shaped impressions on raw clay; from the Latin word for "wedge"
a type of society, most typically found among foragers, that lacks status distinctions except for those based on age, gender and individual qualities, talents and achievements
ranked societies
a type of society with hereditary inequality but not social stratification; individuals are ranked in terms of their genealogical closeness to the chief, but there is a continuum of status, with many individuals and kin groups ranked about equally
characeristic of a system with socioeconomic strata; one of two or more groups that contrast in regard to social stus and access to strategic resources. each stratum includes people of both sexes and all ages
traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs; distinctly human; transmitted through learning
interested in the whole of the human condition:past, present and future; biology, society, language, and culture
the tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards
cultural relativism
the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. extreme relativism argues that cultures should be judged solely by their own standards
the research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of significance
the research strategy that emphasizes the ovserver's rather than the natives; explanations, categories, and criteria of significance
the accelerating interdependece of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems
something, verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection
variations of a language -
the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
the study of sounds used in speech
significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs
the study of form; used in linguistics(the study of morphemes and word construction) and for form in general-for example, biomorphology relates to physical form
single words; have meaning
vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning
focal vocabulary
a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of excperience or activity) such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers
variations fo speech in different contexts
a language's meaning system
the arrangements and order of words in phrases and sentences
study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context
historical linguistics
subdivision of linguistics that studies languages over time
descriptive linguistics
the study of grammar, classification, and arrangement of the features of a language at a given time, without reference to the history of the language or comparison with other languages
the existence of "high"(formal) and "low"(familial)dialects of a single language, such as German
nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time
nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor
people who use a food-producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals
movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group(men, women, and children) with their animals. More generally, such constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources
one of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages
basic unit of social organization among foragers. A band includes fewer than one hundred people; it often splits up seasonally