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141 Cards in this Set

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Microbiology
The study of small life (can't be seen with the naked eye)
Bacteriology
Study of bacteria
(Subdivision of Microbiology)
Mycology
Study of Fungi
(Subdivision of Microbiology)
Protozoology
Study of Protozoans

e.g. Amoeba, Euglena,
------ -------
Paramecium
----------
Parasitology
Study of Parasites (worms)
(Round worms, Flukes, and Flat worms
Virology
Study of Viruses and other non-cellular parasites (not living)
Immunology
Study of Immune System (defense of disease and infection, white blood cells, antibodies)
Public Health
Monitor diseases
WHO: World Health Organization
CDC: Center of Disease Control
Food
Good: microbes create food like cheese, yogurt, beer
Bad: Food borne infection like salmonella
Agriculture
Protection of plants from disease and insects.
Biotechnology
Industrial such as drug production, vitamins, enzymes in detergents, alcohols, plastics
Genetic and DNA technology
Gene splicing, cloning, stem cell research, paternity testing
Zecharias Janssen
Invented first compound microscope
Robert Hook
First to see and name the cell
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Described the three basic shapes of bacteria.
"Father of Microbiology"
Francesco Redi
Devoted life to disproving Abiogenesis
Lazzaro Spallazani
Conducted Experiments to disprove abiogenesis. Worked with microbes
Edward Jenner
Created the first vaccine

cow pox----->small pox
Theodor Schwann
All living organisms are composed of cells.
Cell Theory
Matthias Schleiden
All living organisms are composed of cells.
Cell Theory
Ignaz Semmelweis
Implemented good antiseptic conditions for hospitals (washing hands, bedding, instruments) and saw death rate decrease
John Snow
Some diseases are communicable
Rudolf Virchow
First to observe and report mitosis (cell division)
Cell Theory
Louis Pasture
Discovered 2 types of bacteria-aerobic and anaerobic, heating foods/liquids enough will kill aerobic bacteria, found the cures for many diseases, and final disproving of abiogenesis through experiements using invention the swan neck flask
Joseph Lister
Documented use of disinfectants during surgical procedures and death rates decreased.
Robert Koch
Nobel prize winner for method of finding the cause of diseases.
Koch's Postulate
Four Step Proof of Disease
1. The Same Microorganism must be found in all animals with the same disease
2. The microorganism is removed from host and grown in pure cultures.
3. When injected into a healthy host, the host will show symptoms of the disease.
4. The microorganism must be re-isolated from the infected host.
Paul Ehrlich
First Antibiotic
(syphyllis) and designed system for determining best treatment for a disease.
Gerhard Damagk
Sulfa Drugs as antibiotic
Alexander Fleming
Discovered Penicillin
(Nobel Prize)
Howard Florey
Experiments to study and purify and the promoted mass production of penicillin
(Nobel Prize)
Ernest Chain
Experiments to study and purify and the promoted mass production of penicillin
(Nobel Prize)
James Watson
Established the molecular structure of DNA
(Nobel Prize)
Francis Crick
Established the molecular structure of DNA
(Nobel Prize)
Maurice Wilkins
Established the molecular structure of DNA
(Nobel Prize)
Rosalinda Franklin
Established the molecular structure of DNA using x-ray photos
Linus Pauling
Discovered that some diseases are due to mutations (precurser to cancer research) (Nobel Prize)
Jonas Salk
Developed first Polio Vaccine
Series of injections (x3)
Albert Sabin
Developed second Polio Vaccine-Oral (1x)
Luc Montagnier
Discovered HIV-the cause of AIDS
Ian Wilmut
Cloned first mammal (sheep)
Taxonomy
Study of Classification
Carolus Linnaeus
(Carl von Linne)
Developed classification system used by the US and Europe
Taxonomic Hierachy
Domain---> Species

Broad----> Specific
Binomial System
Two name System
Uses Latin or Greek because languages are "dead" so they don't change
Taxa
Levels of Classification
What is the order of Taxa
Domain, Kingdom, Division (Phylum), Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Supers and Subs
Two additional groups between each taxa
Subdomain
Superkingdom
etc
Eukarya
(Domain) composed of cells with a membrane bound nucleus
Plantae
(Kingdom) multi-cellular, photosynthetic, cell walls made of cellulose
Fungi
(Kingdom) multi-cellular or single celled, non- photosynthetic, cell walls made of chitin
Animalia
(Kingdom) Mulit-cellular, non-photosynthetic, no cell wall (only cell membrane)
Protista
(Kingdom) Uni-cellular (single cell), photosynthetic or non-photosynthetic, most do not have a cell wall, but some do.

Amoeba, Egluena, Paramecium
------ ------- ----------
Prokarya
(Domain) composed of cells (or a single cell) that does not have a membrane bound nucleus
Archeabacteria
(Kingdom) Old or ancient bacteria. Atypical, living in extreme elements
(Mendosicutes)
Eubacteria
(Kingdom) "True Bacteria" Typical bacteria found everywhere
Gracilicutes
(Division) These bacteria have a gram negative cell wall
Firmicutes
(Division) These bacteria have a gram positive cell wall
Tenericutes
(Division) These bacteria lack a cell wall
Species
The only definable Taxa
Species Definition for Eukarya
A group of similarly constructed organisms that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring in nature.
Species Definition for Prokarya
A population of cells with similar characteristics
Rules for naming a species
1. Species always includes the genus name and the specific epithet
2. The genus is always capitalized. The specific epithet is always lower case.
3. The species name is always underlined or in italics.
4. Abbreviations may be acceptable if it is referenced first and then abbreviated closely thereafter.
Non-living biological material
Obligate intercellular parasites-inside a host cell and cause damage when reproducing but not alive
Virus
Composed of two components-a Capsid Outer protein shell and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) inside
Viroid
A short piece of RNA
Prion
Proteinacious Infectious Particles
Protein Globuals
(neurological infections
e.g. mad cow)
Prokaryotic Cells
No nucleus in cell
Single chromosome in a circle shape
Eukaryotic Cells
"True Nucleus" Nucleus in cell, many chromosomes X shaped, membrane bound nucleus
Cell Appendages
Stuctures that protrude out of the cell
Flagellum
Long hair-like structures (protein) for motility
Monotrichous
one flagellum (hair)
Lophotrichous
four or more flagellum
Amphitrichous
term for bipolar tuffs
Peritrichous
flagellum coming out everywhere at random
Polar
Flagellum only comes out at one end
Bipolar
Flagellum comes out at both ends
Pilus
long tube sticking out from cell, used to exchange DNA for genetic variability
Fimbria
short numerous projections for motility
Cell Envelope
Coating around outside of cell for protection and adherance (sticky) Polysaccaride or protein
Capsule
cell envelope is equally distributed around the cell
Slime layer
cell envelope is not equally distributed around cell, irregular.
Cell Wall
Semi-ridged structure. Gives cell it's shape. Function is for protection and support
Gram Positive Wall
Cell wall composed of several layers thick of peptidoglycan and amino acids
Gram Negative Wall
Cell Wall composed of an outer membrane and a single layer of peptidoglycan and amino acids
Gram Stain:
Crystal Violet
Purple for both + and -
Gram Stain:
Gram's Iodine
Purple for both + and -
Gram Stain:
Alcohol
Purple for +
Clear for -
Gram Stain:
Safranin
Purple for +
Red/Pink for -
non-typical Wall
Bacterial cell will have no cell wall.
Cell Membrane
Composed of 40% phospholipids and 60% proteins; semi-selective membrane regulates what goes in or out through diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion.
Cytoplasm
90% water; also carbs, proteins, and vitamins
Nucleoid
(prokaryotic cell)
Area where the chromosome stays
Chromosome
(prokaryotic cell)
Single circular chromosome
Plasmid
(prokaryotic cell)
extra piece of DNA in nucleoid
Ribosome
(prokaryotic cell)
produce protein-free floating
60% rRNA
40% protein
Inclusions
(prokaryotic cell)
Storage areas for gases and fluids
Granule
(prokaryotic cell)
STorage area for solids
Endospore
(prokaryotic cell)
Highly resistant dormant cell; a protective mechanism in which the cell wall stretches and encircles nucleoid and reconnects creating a cell wall around it.
Cell Wall
(eukaryotic cell)
Semi-ridged; for structure and protection. Made of cellulose or chitin
Nucleus
(eukaryotic cell)
Membrane bound structure
Nuclear envelope
(eukaryotic cell)
protects nucleus
Nucleoplasm
(eukaryotic cell)
cytoplasm in nucleus
mostly water
Nucleolus
(eukaryotic cell)
Compact area with chromosomes
Chromosomes
(eukaryotic cell)
Individual chromosomes are x shaped. numbers vary by organism. 46 chromosome in humans
Ribosome
(eukaryotic cell)
protein factories, attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Tubing in the cell;
rough and smooth
Rough ER
studded with ribosomes, ribosomes attachment is main function, some storage of protein
Smooth ER
help process nutrients (non protein); fats and carbs
Golgi Apparatus
works closely with ER and ribosomes. Packages and processes protein products
Lysosome
Pocket of enzymes produces lysozyme; enzyme that protects the cell
Vacuole
vaccant area, storage area
Mitochondria
where cellular energy is produced (ATP)
Cristae
Specific area in mitochondra where ATP is produced
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis;
chlorophyll
Genetics
The study of heredity
Chromosome
Genetic material, made of a double coiled strand of DNA, x or O shape. Number varies
Gene
Segment of DNA on a chromosome that will provide a specific trait or function.
e.g. eye color
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid; Genetic information carrying molecule of the body
Deoxyribose
(DNA)
pentose sugar: C5 H10 O4
legs of the "ladder" of DNA
covalently bonds with Phospate and nitrogenous bases
Phospate
(DNA)
PO4
legs of the "ladder" of DNA; covalently bonds with Deoxyribose
Nitrogenous Bases
Cyclic carbon Compound with nitrogen base.
Purines
Double cyclic compound;
Nitrogenous base
Adenine
a purine that bonds with Thymine in DNA and with Uricil in RNA
Guanine
a purine that bonds with Cytosine in both DNA and RNA
Pyrimidines
Single Cyclic Compound;
Nitrogenous base
Thymine
Pyrimidine that bonds with Adenine, only found in DNA
Cytosine
Pyrimidine that bonds with Guanine in both DNA and RNA
Uricil
Pyrimidine that bonds with Adenine, only found in RNA
Bonds that occur in DNA structure
Covalent-STRONG
Hydrogen-WEAK
Nucleotide
1 phosphate, 1 sugar, 1 nitrogenous base; noted by first letter of base
A, G, T, C
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid; carries info from cell's DNA to produce protein
Ribose
sugar: C5 H10 O5
Types of RNA
mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
mRNA
Messanger RNA; formed at a limited DNA site (gene) and carries that information to the ribosome. 15 - 1000's Base pairs long
tRNA
Transfer RNA; transfers info from a genetic code to an amino acid code. Loops back on itself in an L shape; has a codon and anticodon and an amino acid attahced. 75-85 Base pairs in length
rRNA
Ribosomal RNS; major building block of ribosome, controls protein synthesis. Ribosome is 60% rRNA and 40% Protein
Polypeptides
Proteins; chain of amino acids ( enzymes, steroids, hormones)
Amino Acids
20+ in body
Amino Acid Structure
Composed of a central carbon, Amino Group, Carboxyl Group, Hydrogen Group, and Carbon Group
Peptide Bond
Covalent Bond(strong) Bond forms between the OH of the carboxyl group and an H of the amino group; the by product is water