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30 Cards in this Set

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What is Innate Immunity?
acts as the bodys first line of defense to prevent entry of pathogense and consists of 2 basic systems; skin and mucosal barriers and inflammatory response.
What is acquired Immunity?
the ability of the body's immune system to specifically recognize and inactivate foreign substances without injury to other host tissue. Occurs after exposure to a foreign obj. after birth.
Innate Immunity also utilizes Natureal Killer Lymphocytes to protect from disease. What is NK lymphocytes?
-are not "thymic educated". They operate independently of the thymus gland. They seek out and destroy abnormal developing tissue. They produce perforins that penetrate teh cell's membrane and cause it to fragment and die.
Aquired Immunity:

What is passive immunity?
is a resistance to a foregin body that is aquired by receiving antibodies from another person; breast milk,vaccine. Temporary
Aquired Immunity:

What is Active immunity?
resistance to a foreign body that occurs as a result of contact with the for. body itself. Occurs via infect.,immuniz. with antigen, transplant.
In ____ immunity the individual actively produces antibodies and sensitized lymphocytes in response to the _____?
active

antigen
What are the immune response phases?
Recognition
Elimination
Resolution
What is Phase 1?
Induction phase begins with the introdu. of an antigen into the hosts system, or recognition of foreign material.
Which of the following is or are high risk for HIV?
needles
bites of infected persons
infected blood
unprotected sex
Needles
infected blood
unprotected sex
What is major histocompatibility complex?
group of genetically determined molecules locted in the chormosomes chromosome 6.
Where are MHC's found?
originally in the leukocytes also referred to as human leukocytic antigens (HLA's).
What is MHC's purpose?
"cell marker", allows on'es own body makeup to exist and to be recognized by his/her immune system as being endemic and non-foreign.
How do you become antigenic?
a tissue cell has to genetically determine epitopes on its outer surface. MHC determines the foreign objects.
Certain small molecular weight substances can act as antigens by becoming haptens. What is haptens?
Haptens are small molecular weight substances that bind to a large protein carrier in teh plasma proteins and become antigenic.
What is phase 2?
elimination of the foreign invader with two different systems.
What are the 2 different responses of phase 2?
Cell mediated response-works from T lymphocytes (CD4,CD8 lympho.)
Humeral response-works from B lymphocytes
What is humeral immunity?
are produced in the bone marrow and has a receptor for recognizing a specific antigen. When the antigen reacts with the B lymphocyte, the result is production of antibodies.
What is the immune complement system?
antigen reacts with receptor site-CD4 activated-release lymphokines-antigen altered-Blymph are stimulated-forms plasma cells that produce antibodies to the antigen-moves to antigen/ant.complex
What is the antigen antibody complex?
formed after plasma cells are formed which activates the immune complement systems. This results in a distraction of the foreign invader. aka soluable mediator.
What are antibodies
proteins produced by plasma cells to combat a specific foreign agent.
What are immunoglobulins?
antibody proteins that are high molecular weight proteins that are composed of 2 heavy polypeptide chains and 2 light polypeptide chains.
H chain:
What are the 5 known antibody classes?
IgG-body fluids
IgM
IgA-attached to mucosal surfaces
IgE-attached to mast cells,allergies,mediates parasite reaction
IgD-attached to B-lymph serves as antigen receptor site.
L chain:
What are the two basic structural types?
Kappa
Lambda
What is cell mediated immunity?
T Lymphocytes are "thymic educated" :they are programmed by the thymus gland during the first years of life for their immune funct.
How do T lymphocytes activate and function?
antigen reacts with CD4 helper T lmph-release lympokines-activate CD8-release perforins-break down antigen
What is innate immunity?
assoc. with aging where white blood cells lose motility and function. Immune complement levels may increase and NK cell function may decrease.
What changes might occur with aging and the immune system?
involution of thymus,decline in number of Ts,decreased antibody production,tendency to form autoantibodies which facilitates diseases, and genetic mutations of cells.
What is apoptosis?
tendencies for immune cells to destruct.
What may autoimmune disease affect?
joints, soft tissue, movement, mobility, and quality of life.
What may thinning of skin cause in older individuals?
less resistance to pressure sores. Changes in GI tract (decrease in nutrition, decreases padding) affects this.