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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 types of microbial interaction
commensalism, parasitism, and mutualism
what is a normal flora
an organism that live in or on the body
how do normal flora benefit humans
providing vitamins, eliminating toxins, and protect us from highly pathogenic organisms
what are the types of normal flora
resident normal flora and transient normal flora
resident normal flora
microorganism that live and grow on a particular body site
transient normal flora
microorganism that are present on the body for a short period of time
what are the skin and ears norma flora
what normal flora is the throat
staphylococcus, streptococcus, anaerobic bact.
what normal flora is small intestines
enterococcus and lactobacillus
what normal flora is the Genital Urinary Tract
organism that transfer microorganism from 1 host to another
were a micro is found
the ability to cause a disease
the severity of a disease
a group of proteins that interact together to kill bacteria
a protein that regulate a certain aspect of the immune system
is a nonspecific response to injury or infection
Mast cells
tissue cells that function and is mediate of inflammation response
list 5 steps to infect a host with a infection/ bacteria
reath the host/ transmission, colonize, multiply, evade/survive host defenses, and have a means of harming a host
list 6 ways to transmit an infection/ bacteria
insect/animal bite, inhaling, ingestion, injury/trama, direct contact, and indirect contact
what must a host cell be able to do to survive colonize
must out complete normal flora for binding sites,not get eliminated from the host,with stand body defenses
list 3 types of ways a microorganism can invade host tissue
animal/insect bite, microbial penetration of host tissue, and injury/wound
majority of the micros multiply successfully cause they are
facultative intracellular parasites (grow inside cells in the body)
list 7 ways to survive host defenses
prevent phagoctosisby wbc, microbial protein is not recognized as being foreign, microbial protein is coated with host protein, intracellular growth, extensive destruction of tissue, antigenic variation, and enzymes degrade antibodies
list 3 ways of harming a host
extracellualar enzymes, intracellualar growth, and microbial toxins
types of microbial toxins
endotoxin and exotoxin
heat sensitve (cannot stand boiling)
heat stable (can stand boiling) gram (-) rods, its lipopolysaccharide
list the types of exotoxin
AB toxin, pore forming toxin, and Proleolytic toxin
pore forming toxin
form pores on the cell membrane result in leakage of cell content and then death
AB toxin
A component(toxic) and B component (attaches to target cells)
Proleolytic toxin
split or break an import protein in the host they disrupt neurotoxins
Endotoxin in small doses
is good for humans it promote fever, produce antibodies, and activate complement
Endotoxin in large doses
is bad cause it dont regulate body temp., DIC, vasodilation
how do you classify a toxin
cytotoxin, neurotoxin, and enterotoxin
kills cells, degrade cell membrane, form pores on membrane,inhibit protein synthesis
dont kill cells,instead secrete H2O and electrolytes
dont kill cells,instead distrupt neurotransmission
what is the 3 main defenses against bacteria
physical barriers, innate immunity, and adaptive immunity
list 5 physical barriers
gag reflexes,mucus membrane, tears in eyes, skin, peristalisis
2 types of adaptive immunity
humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity
in innate immunity what is the types of white blood cells
neutrophiles, macrophages, monocytes, eosinophiles, basophiles, lymphocytes
1st to arrive and polymorphonuclear leukorytes
cytic infection
circulate in the body and a mononuclear phagocytic cell
least # of wbc and involved in allergic reaction
largest # of wbc and attach to tissue
involved in adaptive immunity
list the 3 types of lymphocytes
T cell (cell mediated immunity)and B cell(humoral immunity)and natural killer
where do T cells mature at
in thymus
where do B cells mature at
bone marrow and sometimes spleen
what is the function for natural killer lymphocytes
to kill viruses, cancer cells, and intracellular pathogens
Cell mediated immunity
regulated by T cells and cytokins (regulate certain aspect of immune system)
Humoral immunity
production of antibodies
list the 5 cytokins (cell mediated immunity)
Chemokins,Hematopoietins,Interleukins,Tumor Narosis factor,Interferon (IFN)
list the 3 types of Interferon(is a type of cytokin)
alpha ifn, beta ifn, gamma ifn
Alpha IFN
produced by macrophages and monocytes. In contain viral infection so it won’t spread and blocks viral replication and activate natural killer cells (type of lymphocytes, which is involved in adaptive immunity)
Beta IFN
produced by fibroblasts (tissue cells) have antiviral activities and regulate several aspects of immune system
Gamma IFN
produced by T cells and involved with immune regulation
T cells have different types what are all of them
t helper cells, T regulatory cells, T cytotoxic cells, T delayed type hypersensitivity cells
T helper cells
stimulate humoral and cell mediated immunity, produce cytokins, HIV kills T helper cells so AIDS patients is exposed to a wide variety of diseases
T regulatory cells
deactivate or turn off immune response and also serve as to protect against autoimmune disease
T cytotoxic cells
kills virus cells and stimulated by interleukin-2, this is produced by T helper cells
activate bact. and viruses
activate complement
neutralizes bact. toxins
croses placenta
polymer of 5 Ig molecules and usually 1st to antibody following the 1st exposure to antigen
occurs as a dimer of 2 Ig molecules and major antibodies in mucsoal secreation
antibodies involved in allergic reaction: mast cells have IgE receptors
least # of immunoglobin and found on surface of b cells and they interact with antigens that triggers activation of b cells
name the 5 action of antibodies
interaction with complement, opsonization(enchanced phagocytosis of wbc), neutralization of viruses, neutralization of toxins, and
attract phagocytes and lymphocytes
regulate and stimulate growth and differentiation of wbc
produced by mycotes and lymphocytes and they regulate response of other lymphocyts and hematopoietic stem cells
tumor nacrosis factor
kills tumor cells and have an important role in inflammation, promote fever and apoptosis
protein with antiviral activities and produced in resp. of viral infection, they were notice 30yrs ago
what can excessive amount of immune complexes result in
persisten infection with weak immune response,continued prod. of auto antibodies, ans repeated exposure to an allergy
what is type 1 immune response
allergic reation that occur immed. to a person then 2nd exposure to an antigen. mediated by IgE
what is type 2 immune response
caused by antibodis to tissue
ex. patient get wrong blood
what is type 3 immune response
caused by antibody-antigen complex. primarily removed by macrophages that are in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. it can accumulate in kidney and joints
what is type 4 immune response
mediated by Tdth cells. secrete cytokins that attract lymphocytes, macrophages, and basophls. if a large amount of these can cause tissue damage
hypersensitivity reaction
an exasrated immune response and occur in ppl who is exposed to antigen and the 2nd time you have immediate and delayed hypersensitivity
what are the 2 types of hypersensitvity reaction
immediate and delayed
programmed cell death