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174 Cards in this Set

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acetabulum
Cuplike cavity on lateral surface of the hip bone that receives the femur.
acromegaly
is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH).
appositional growth
Growth accomplished by the addition of new layers onto those previously formed.
axial
Relating to the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body.
bony callus
spongy bone created by fibrocartilaginous buildup during bone repair
calcaneus
the heel bone
calcitonin (not technically a “thyroid hormone”)
Hormone released by the thyroid that promotes a decrease in calcium levels of the blood; also called thyrocalcitonin.
calcitriol
the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3)
canaliculi
a small channel found in ossified bone
capitulum and trochlea
found at the distal end of the humerus bone and the medial portion of the articular surface of the humerus
carpals
the cluster of bones in the hand between the radius and ulna and the metacarpus
cervical
The seven vertebrae of the vertebral column located in the neck.
chondrocytes
Mature cell form of cartilage.
clavicle
a bone that makes up part of the shoulder girdle (pectoral girdle).
coccyx
commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the human vertebral column, of three to five (usually four) fused vertebrae
collagen
The most abundant of the three fibers found in the matrix of connective tissue.
compact bone
Dense outer layer of skeletal bone; lamellar bone.
condyle
projections on the lower extremity of femur. It is the more prominent and is the broader both in its antero-posterior and transverse diameters.
cranial
Bony protective encasement of the brain and organs of hearing and equilibrium; also called the skull.
diaphysis
Diffusion of solute(s) through a semipermeable membrane.
diploe
The internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones.
endochondral ossification
Embryonic formation of bone by the replacement of calcified cartilage; most skeletal bones are formed by this process.
endosteum
Connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces.
epicondyles
larger and more prominent than the lateral epicondyle, is directed a little backward; it gives attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow-joint
epiphyseal plate
Plate of hyaline cartilage at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis that provides for growth in length of a long bone.
epiphysis
The end of a long bone, attached to the shaft.
ethmoid
bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.
fibrocartilaginous callus
The most compressible type of cartilage; resistant to stretch. Forms vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages.
fibula
or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the most slender of all the long bones.
foramen magnum
n the occipital bone, the foramen magnum (Latin: 'great hole') is one of the several oval or circular apertures in the base of the skull (the foramina), through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) enters and exits the skull vault.
foramen/foramina
Hole or opening in a bone or between body cavities.
fossa
A depression, often an articular surface.
frontal
Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
gigantism
a condition characterized by excessive height growth.
glenoid cavity
On the lateral angle of the scapula is a shallow pyriform, articular surface, the glenoid cavity (or glenoid fossa of scapula), which is directed lateralward and forward and articulates with the head of the humerus
growth hormone
Hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced in the anterior pituitary; also called somatotropin (STH).
hematoma
Mass of clotted blood that forms at an injured site.
hydroxyapatite
the main mineral component of dental enamel, dentin, and bone
interstitial growth
Growth from a number of different centers within an area. The growth process most apparent during cartilage formation.
intervertebral foramen
When the vertebrae are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk, and the vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord), while between every pair of vertebræ are two apertures, the intervertebral foramina, one on either side, for the transmission of the spinal nerves and vessels.
intramembranous ossification
is one of two types of bone formation and is the process responsible for the development of flat bones, especially those found in the skull. Unlike endochondral ossification, cartilage is not involved or present in this process.
maxilla
The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw.
medullary cavity
The marrow cavity in long bones; in adults, contains fat (yellow marrow).
mesenchymal cells
are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. Found in bone marrow
metacarpals
The metacarpus is the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the fingers distally and the carpus which forms the connection to the forearm. It consists of five cylindrical bones which are numbered from the radial to the ulnar side (ossa metacarpalia I-V).
metaphysis
the body of cartilage that separates the epiphyses and the diaphysis of long bones during growth.
metatarsals
The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities.
occipital
Forms most of the posterior wall and base of the skull externally.
olecranon process
The elbow joint. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm.
os coxae
The pelvis (pl. pelvises or pelves) is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end).
osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells.
osteoclasts
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix.
osteocytes
Mature bone cell.
osteons
System of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone; unit of bone; also called Haversian system.
parathyroid glands
Small endocrine glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
parathyroid hormone
Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level.
parietal
are bones in the human skull and form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is irregularly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.
pectoral girdle
Bones that attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton; includes the clavicle and scapula.
pelvic girdle vs. pelvis
Consists of the paired coxal bones that attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.
perichondrium
Fibrous, connective-tissue membrane covering the external surface of cartilaginous structures.
periosteum
Double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone.
processes
(1) Prominence or projection; (2) series of actions for a specific purpose.
rickets
Disorder in which bones are inadequately mineralized; caused by insufficient dietary calcium or vitamin D deficiency.
spongy bone
Internal layer of skeletal bone. Also called cancellous bone.
sutures
An immovable fibrous joint; with one exception, all bones of the skull are united by sutures.
thyroid
One of the largest of the body's endocrine glands; straddles the anterior trachea.
trabeculae
(1) Any of the fibrous bands extending from the capsule into the interior of an organ; (2) struts or thin plates of bone in spongy bone.
another name for thumb
pollex
another name for big toe
hallux
another name for your knuckles
proximal metacarpals
carpals
Sally left the party to take Cathy home; Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
in anatomical position, the radius is later or medial to the body
lateral
define fossa
a depression
where the scapula meets the clavicle
acromiclavicular joint
components of pectoral girdle
clavicle and scapula
number of vertebrosternal ribs
true ribs - 7 pair
number of vertebral ribs (pair)
2 (ribes 11 and 12)
how many true ribs; false ribs; floating ribs
7; 5; 2
what are vertebrosternal ribs and how many are there?
ribs that attach to the sternum; seven pair
which vertebra are the most stressed, kidney shaped body, triangular foramen
lumbar
which vertebra articulates with ribs, its body is heart shaped, and has a circular foramen
thoracic
which vertebra is the smallest and lightest, with a wide body, a triangular foramen, and is visible in the skin
cervical
2 major ligaments of the spine
anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
the five skull bones that contain sinuses
frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, paired maxillary
what would you find in the alveolarmargins
teeth (mandible and maxillae)
what are the keystone bones of the facial skeleton
the maxillae
2 unpaired of facial bones
mandible and volmer
6 paired facial bones
maxillae, zygomatic, nasals, lacrimal, palatines, inferior conchae
sutures that connect parietals with occipital
lambroid
suture that connects frontal to parietals
coronal
what two bones make up the bulk of the cranial vault
the two parietal bones
another name for the forehead
frontal squama
six bones of the cranium
2 parietals, 2 temporals, 1 frontal, 1 occipital, 1 sphenoid, 1 ethnoid
suture connecting the paired parietal bones
sagittal
4 major sutures in the cranium
coronal, sagittal, squamous, lambdoid
5 functions of facial bones
framework of face, cavity for sense organs, opening of air and food, secure teeth, anchor facial muscles
three functions of PTH
stimulates osteoclasts to digest matrix and release Ca into the blood, enhance kidnesy to reabsorb Ca, increase Ca absorption by intestinal mucosa
what controls levels of Ca in the bloodstream
PTH
3 homeostatic imbalances of bone
osteomalacia (soft bones), osteoporosis, pagets or excess bone deposits
fracture common in children
greenstick
fracture common to sports fracture
spiral
fracture that fragments the bone into 3 or more pieces
communited
fracture that separates from diaphysis along plate
ephipheyseal fracture
fracture where the broken bone portion is press inward, typical of a skull fracture
depressed
fracture where the bone is crushed
compression fracture
fracture where ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to bone
spiral
fracture common in porous bone (osteoporotic) and subjected to trauma and fall
compression fracture
fracture common in aged where bones are brittle
communited
fracture cwhere bone breaks incompletely - only on one side
greenstick
4 stages of bone repair
hematoma formation, fibrocartiligous callus formation, bony callus formation, bony remodeling begins
hormonal loop detemines ___ and ___ remodeling occurs
whether and when
mechanical stress determines ___
where
large boney projections occur where
heavy, active muscle attaches
trabeculae of spongy bone forms trusses ____
along compression lines
curved bones are thickest where
they are most likely to buckle
curved and long bones are thickest where ___
the bending streeses are greated
two controls for bone remodeling
mechanical stress and hormonal
spongy bone is replaced every ____
3 to 4 years
compact bone is replaced every ____
10 years
every week we recycle _____ of our bone mass
5 to 7%
As blood Ca declines, what hormone increases?
PTH
When does bone deposit occur?
when bone is injured or when added bone strength is needed
what compise remodeling units and what do they work upon?
Osteoblasts and osteocytes that work on the surface of the periosteum and the endosteum
hormones that promote bone growth
growth hormone and sex hormones
can bone change size after the teen years
yes, in diameter or thickness by appostional growth of streed by excessive muscle activity or body weight
do epiphyseal plates disappear and if so , what happens?yes, plates become thinner and thinner until replaced by bone tissue. Epipheyseal and diaphysis fuse
in short bones, which ossification centers form?
only the primary. Irregular bones develop from distinct ossification centers
what is the composition of periosteal bud?
blood vessels, nerve fibers, lymph vessels, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, red marrow
what type of ossification forms bone other than the skull and clavicle
endochondral ossification
what type of ossification forms the skull and clavicles
intermembrane (firbouse cartilage)
what is intramembrane ossification
when fibrous cartilage that makes embryonic skeletal is replaced with bone (called membrane bone)
what makes bones endure after death
the salt minerals
what would you find in diaphysis that you would not find in the epiphysis
bone marrow (epiphysis contains only spongy bone)
cartilage that makes up menisci and vetebral discs
fibrocartilate (highly compressible)
the cartilage that is found only in the ears and epiglottis
elastic cartilage
four types of skeletal hyaline cartilage
articular, costal, respiratory, nasal
the substances that make bone hard
hydroyyapatites or mineral salts (about 65% mass)
what are hydroxyaptites
the 65% by mass of mineral salts (largely CaPO4)
what are sacrficial bonds
bonds in collagen that break upon impact, cushioing bone impact (they reform)
medullary cavity contains
fat (yellow marrow) yellow bone marrow
another name for the marrow cavity in a long bone
medullary cavity
name of the core of each osteon
central or Haversan canal (houses blood, lymph vessels and nerve fiber)
structures in bone (compact) that withstand torsion stress
lamella and alternating collagen fibers wrapped in alternating directions
the hollow bone matrix tube in compact bone
lamella
where would you find trabeculae
it’s the honeycomb like structure in spongy and cancellous bone
4 projections that form joints
head, facet, condyle, ramus
what is a tubercle
small round porjection or process
another name for compact bone
lamellar bone (since its made of lamellae tubes)
where would you find the red marrow cavities (in smooth and flat bone)
trabecular cavities in long and in the diploe of the flat
red marrow is also called
hematopoietic
diploe is also called
spongy bone in flat bone
the cartilage that is most abundant, support and flexible, spherical chondocytes, and covers most ends of movable joints
hyaline
what is a trochanter
very large, blunt irregular shaped process (femur)
describe a tuberous projection
large and round (may be roughened)
two groups of skeleton
axial and appendicular
name the three types of cartilage
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
what is the perichondrium and where would you find it
the dense irregular connective tissure found around the cartilage (contains blood vessels that enrich the cartilage)
five functions of bones
support, protective, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation
four bone classification
long, short, flat, irregular
where would you find a sesamoid bone (attached to what)
a tendon, the patella
contains marrow but has no marrow cavity
short, flat or irregular bone
how are spongy bone nourished
no osteons are present so nutrients reach osteocyes by diffusing through canaliculi from cap in endosteum around trabeculae
structure that supplies nutrients to long bones
osteons
the tyep of bone whos trabaculae contain irregular arranged lammelae and osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi
spongy bone
what are interstital and circumfrential lamellae
incomplete lamellae between intact osteons
appendicualr bones provide
locomotion
axial bones provide what
protection, support, carrying other body parts
interstitial growth is
growth from within
growth from outside is also called
appositional (surrounding perichondrium secretes new matrix)
how are cells in the bone matrix nourished
through cell to cell relays via gap junctions and the canaliclui
what are the bodies that atach the periosteoum to the bone
perforatin or sharpey's fibers (collagen that work their way into the bone matrix)
where nerve, lymphatic vessesl and blood vessels enter a bone
the diaphysis via a nutrient foramen
two layers of outer bone membrane
fibrous (dense irregular connective tissue) and osteogenic (contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts)
what would you find between the epiphysis and diaphysis
the epiphyseal line (or plate ) or the metaphysis