Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/60

Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(Neuron Anatomy)
cell body
region w/ nucleus
(Neuron Anatomy)
processes
extentions of membranes
ex)dendrites, Axons(nerve fiber)
(Neuron Anatomy)
dendrites f(X)
f(x)-deliver impulse away from cell body
(Neuron Anatomy)
axons-F(x) and parts(2)
f(x)-carry impulse away from cell body
parts:axon terminal(end of axon) and synaptic knob(knob at terminal
(Neuron Anatomy)
what are nerves
bundles of axons
(Neuron Anatomy)
myelin
insulative layers of membrane of neuroglial cells called Schwann cells in PNS
(Neuron Anatomy)
Neurilemma(sheath)
outside layer of schwann cell w/ nucleus and most of cytoplasm.
(Neuron Anatomy)
nodes of ranvier
gaps between adjoining schwann cells.
(structural classification of neurons)
bipolar
one process(axon+dendrite) @ opp. ends
ex)eyes, nose, ears
(structural classification of neurons)
unipolar
one process that divides. one end enters CNS or clusters in ganglia outside CNS
(structural classification of neurons)
multipolar
multiple processes. one axon, others dedrites found in CNS.
(Funtional classification of neurons)
sensory(afferent)
carry impulse from PNS to CNS. mostly unipolar, some bipolar
(Funtional classification of neurons)
motor(efferent)
carry impulse from CNS to effectors in PNS. multipolar
(Funtional classification of neurons)
interneurons(association)
links between other neurons. Multipolar in CNS.
funcions of neuroglia
1.insulate nerves...schwann cells
2.structural support 4 neurons
3.specialize neurons
4.secrete growth factors to
5.direct nutrients to neurons
6.remove excess neurotransmitters
(classification of Neuroglia)
astrocytes f(x)
f(x)-tissue structure, ion regulation, glucose metobolism, growth factor, direct nutrients to neurons, reinforce blood-brain barrier
(classification of Neuroglia)
Oligodendrites f(X)
f(X)form myelin in CNS that can reach between adjacent neurons, secrete nerve growth factors for repairs to neurons.
(classification of Neuroglia)
microglea f(x)
f(x)-clean up crew
phagocytize bacteria and debris
(classification of Neuroglia)
ependyma f(x)
f(x)-diffusion layer between cerebral spinal fluid(CSF) + other nercous tissue. lines cavities of CNS
ex)spinal cord, central canal, brain ventricles
Regeneration of PNS Axaons
damage to cell body kills cell. damage to axon is repairable.
Regeneration of PNS Axaons
STEPS (1-5)
1. axon is severed
2. distal portion decomposes
3. Schwann cells form tube, lay down myelin
4. axon grows down new myelin cell tube
5. former connection established
CNS Divisions
Spinal cord
Brain
Brain(4 parts)
cerebrum
cerebellum
diencephalon
brain stem
(The meninges)
Dura mater
vascular CT w/nerves + forms internal periosteum of the skull bones + covers spinal cord as it psases through vertebral column(separated from vertebra by epidural space)
(The meninges)
arachnoid mater
a vascular membrane that reabsorbs cerebral spinal fluid
(The meninges)
Pia mater
vascular w/nerves. nourishes CNS cells via cerebral spinal fluid secretion + attaches dura mater to spinal cord.
(The meninges)
Meningitus
a viral or bact. inflammation of the meninges.
-affects vision hearing, IQ
what is Cerebral sinus fluid (CSF)?
it is similar in comp. to plasma from which it is derived
Cerebral sinus fluid f(x)
f(X)-cusions CNS, nourishes CNS, trasports wastes to blood, ion balance
(Ventricles)
first and second
lateral ventricles that extend into frontal, temporal, + occipital lobes
(Ventricles)
third
midline ventricle below the corpus callosum
(ventricles)
fourth
inferior ventricle anterior to cerebellum
(components of spinal cord)
cervical enlargement
origin of arm nerves
(components of spinal cord)lumbar enlargement
origin of leg nerves
(components of spinal cord)
c9heus medularis
end of spinal cord
(components of spinal cord)filum terminale
pia mater that attaches cord to superior coccyx
(components of spinal cord)cauda equina
nerves radiating from inferior lumbar enlargement
(components of spinal cord)
central canal
continous w/ brain ventricles
(components of spinal cord)gray matter
interneurons + motor neuron cell bodies
(components of spinal cord)white matter
axons
f(x) of spinal cord
spinal reflex trasmission and conduit for impulses to + from brain
reflex Arcs
pathways for impulses (reflexes) that do not go through brain
ex)heart rate, blood pressure, sneezing, knee jerk
Reflex Arcs Components -5
receptor, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, effectors
(Nerve Tracts)
Tacts
composed of axons w/ a common origin + terminus + corss over in cord or brain stem...(right brain reicieves from left body)
(Nerve Tracts)
ascending
carry impulse up to brain (6 tracts)
(Nerve Tracts)
descending
carry motor impusle down to neurons (6 tracts)
(Experimental repair of spinal tracts)-name 3 and explain
1.protein blockers-block CNS protein that prevents axon regeneration
2.PNS neuron translant-PNS neuron + growth factor
3.Neural stem cell-brain stem cells induced to form patches
Function of The Brain (6)
process sensory info, memory, reasoning, coordinate muscles, coordinate visceral activity, personality-(morality, aggression, compression)
(Cerebral divisions)
convolutions/gyri(us)
inc. surface are for gray matter
(Cerebral divisions)
lobes(5)
named after overlying bones
lobes:frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula
(Cerebral divisions)
cerebral cortex(gray matter)
outermost layer of cerebrm that contains cell bodies.
(Cerebral divisions)
white matter
innermost layer that contains myelinated axons-white appearance
(Functional regions of cortex)
Motor f(x)
frontal lobe ex)muscles and glands
(Functional regions of cortex)
sensory f(x), parietal
skin temperature,(touch, pain)
(Functional regions of cortex)
occipital
vision
(Functional regions of cortex)
temporal
hearing
(Functional regions of cortex)
association areas(6)
not directly involved w/ sensory or motor
f(x)-found in all lobes
-interpret sensory info, memory, emotions, problem sloving, speech, conceptualization of consequence
Wernicke's area
(general interpretative area)-plays primary role in complex thought
Dyslexia
person sees letters separtely or in broken groups. Cause by congenital defects in perception + w/ learning behavior errors.
(Hemisphere dominance)
both active in basic functions however 1 may dominate. 90% of people left himisphere dom. for speech, reading, writeing, and complex analytical tasks