Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
get and understanding of and always consider the anatomy that is more ... in order to treat the distal areas
proximal
axillary artery turns into ... artery and divides into ... artery (feeds deep palmer arch) and ... artery (feeds superficial palmar arch)
-
brachial
radial
ulnar
-posterior cord gives ... nerve
-medial and lateral give ... nerve
-medial cord gives ... nerve
radial
median
ulnar
the elbow joint: ulnohumeral
-angle of ... determines the carrying angle.
-any shift of ulna will significantly impact elbow function
trochlea
what is this?
-ulna abduction
-increased carrying angle
cubitus valgus
what is this?
-ulna adduction
-decreased carrying angle
cubitus varus
with abducted ulna, wrist/hand is (abducted or adducted)

and vice versa
adducted
radioulnar joint:
-head of radius rotates around the ulna allowing for pronation and supination.
-... is important for stabilizing proximal radioulnar joint and stabilizing radius on humerus
annular ligament
radial head "moves" ... in extension, and ... with flexion of the elbow
anteriorly
posteriorly
reciprocal motion of radius:
-radial head moves ... with pronation
-radial head moves ... with supination
posteriorly
anteriorly
pronation/supination involves what 2 joints?
superior radio-ulnar joint
inferior radio-ulnar joint
Traumatic mechanisms for somatic dysfunction:
-if you fall on a pronated arm, you jam the ... radial head (... distal end)
-if you fall on a supinated arm, you jam the ... radial head (... distal end)
posterior (anterior distal end)
anterior (posterior distal end)
what is this?
-radial head dislocation
-age 1-4yo typically
-axial traction injury or fall
-radial head slips under annular ligament
-child refuses to use arm
-neurovascularly intact
-anxiety > pain
nursemaid's elbow
treatment for nursemaid's elbow:
-hold in pronation or supination with extension, then ... and ... forearm
supinate
flex
interosseous membrane anatomy:
-anterior fibers run obliquely ... and ...
-posterior fibers run ... and ...
-fibers bind ... and ... together
-gives stability to ... radius
distally and medially
proximally and laterally
radius and ulna
distal
interosseous membrane forces:
-force is shifted from one bone to the other so that ... bones are impacted
-injury to one bone will involved the other in some way
both
interosseous membrane motion:
-... motion
-allows the 2 bones to move respectively to each other
parallelogram
what kind of fracture is this?
-radial shaft fracture with associated dislocation of distal radioulnar joint
-dislocation is at wrist
Galeazzi fracture
what kind of fracture is this?
-ulnar fracture with dislocation of proximal radioulnar joint
-dislocation is at elbow (radius)
Monteggia fracture
what is the pneumonic to remember the above 2 fractures?
MUGR
Monteggia - fractured Ulna
Galeazzi - fractured Radius
which median nerve syndrome is this?
-pain in hand
-compression of median nerve
carpal tunnel syndrome
which syndrome?
-pain on volar surface of forearm after prolonged pronation
-median nerve is compressed between pronator teres heads
pronator syndrome
which syndrome?
-branch given off in pronator teres mm.
-weakness of index finger flexion
anterior interosseous N palsy
radial nerve: C5-T1
-continuation of the ... cord of brachial plexus
-innervates ... then travels along ... of humerus
-... of hand
-sensation to ... surface of hand
posterior
triceps, spiral groove
extensors
dorsal
radial nerve:
-dives into ... muscle through fascia before supplying wrist/finger extensors
-compression common at ... edge of the above muscle
-posterior interosseous nerve (deep branch of radial nerve) enters extensor compartment
-deficit depends on area injured
-can have muscular weakness without sensory loss due to the superficial and deep branches of the radial nerve
supinator
proximal
ulnar nerve - cubital tunnel syndrome:
-numbness and pain to ... (medial or lateral) hand
-may progress to ...
-causes: frequent bending of elbow, constant direct pressure on elbow, direct blow to cubital tunnel, compression by muscle spasm
medial
claw hand
lateral epicondylitis "tennis elbow" effects the ... group
extensor
medial epicondylitis "golfer's elbow" effects ... group
flexor
what is this?
-inflammation of bursa overlying olecranon process.
-caused by cumulative trauma, or isolated contusion
-may be nontender chronic edema
-may be infectious or associated with systemic inflammatory process: rheumatoid arthritis, gout
olecranon bursitis
elbow somatic dysfunction will limit ... motion

-increased carrying angle (abducted ulna) will limit wrist ...
-and vice versa
wrist

abduction
treatment for hand pain is to address bony and ligamentous integrity and ... alignment
-consider extrinsic causes: neck/shoulder/elbow/wrist
fascial
these can lead to referred pain to ...
-elbow ligamentous injury
-ligamentous instability at cervical spine
-trigger points from forearm muscles
-visceral pain from cardiac ischemia
hand
when you press on a point, and it has radiating pain and generally does not go away easily, it is called a ...
trigger point
carpel tunnel syndrome:
-symptoms begin with paresthesia or pain
-can progress to weakness and muscle atrophy
-may be associated with metabolic disorders: hypothyroidism
-most cases are idiopathic
-... damage will occur with long standing stress to area
-women are 3 times more likely to suffer from this than men
nerve
what are these?
-OMT
-NSAIDS
-steroid injections
-splinting wrist
-surgery to open flexor retinaculum
-must consider fascial restriction (treat fibers of flexor retinaculum also)
treatments for Carpel tunnel syndrome
tests for carpel tunnel Sd:
-...: positive test if results in numbness over median n. distribution
-...(Tapp directly over median nerve
Phalen's maneuver
Tinel sign
what is this?
-pain, tenderness, edema over lateral wrist, difficulty gripping
-idiopathic, possibly "overuse injury", OMM can help to relieve
-tendons of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis mm.
-chronic degenerative or inflammatory process involving synovial sheath
De Quervain's Tenosynovitis
to test for Tenosynovitis, you use what test and what do you do?
Finkelstein test
wrap thumb in other 4 fingers, extend arm, and adduct wrist
Ligaments of fingers:
-... or ... may be treated with OMT
dislocation
subluxation
boutonniere deformity:
-extension at ...
-flexion at ...
DIP
PIP
swan neck deformity:
-flexion at ...
-extension at ...
DIP
PIP
what is this?
-median/ulnar nn. damage
-weakness of intrinsic mm of hand
-extrinsic mm (long extensor mm and long flexor mm) still active
-MCP extension
-PIP/DIP flexion
claw hand
what is this?
-flexion contracture involving palmar fascia
-gradual thikening of fibrous layer under skin
-can be hereditary
-also associated with smoking/EtOH abuse, DM, thyroid ds
Dupuytren's Contracture
what is this?
-radial neuropathy caused by chronic lead poisoning is associated with other physical findings
-caused by compression, ischemia, arm fracture
-proximity to humerus wrapping around bone at spiral groove
-4th most common mononeuropathy
wrist drop
if you have an increased carrying angle, you have ulna ... with ... glide and compression on the ... side

wrist/hand will be ... and restricted to ...
abduction
medial
lateral

adducted
abduction
if you have decreased carrying angle, you will have ulnar ... with ... glide

distal ulna moves ...
adduction
lateral
medially