Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/83

Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
TCA cycle is not used in the ... because there is no mitochondria.

it's used in the other 4 tissues which are ...
red blood cell

liver
brain
muscle
adipose tissue
high insulin to glucagon ratio in the liver cell fosters uptake of ... and fosters ... (glucose to pyruvate) because we're converting excess glucose to fatty acids
glucose
glycolysis
Also fosters ... (formation of glycogen) in liver cell
glycogenesis
what enzyme is used to convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA for entry into the TCA cycle?
pyruvate dehydrogenase
If we are talking about entry into the TCA cycle, we are talking about ...

regulation of the TCA cycle has to do with ... and not ...
acetyl CoA

acetyl CoA
pyruvate dehydrogenase
which reaction is absolutely critical to have in the insulin world for the utilization of glucose? Without this reaction, we won't be able to take glucose and use it for energy and/or convert it into fatty acids for storage of that excess usgar in the form of fat in the form of adipocytes.
pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)
in the insulin world, PDH is ... and ...
dephosphorylated
active
In the liver cell, when there is a low insulin to glucagon ratio, it fosters ... (breakdown of glycogen), and favors ... (conversion of pyruvate to glucose)
glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis
PDH reaction (active) occurs only in which world?
insulin world
Mitochondria:
the respiratory stalks contains ATP synthase enzyme (which does the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP)and is integrally related to electron transport enzyme which are located on the ...
inner membrane
where are most of the TCA cycle enzymes located?
matrix
1 or 2 of the enzymes from the TCA cycle are located on the ... as well

1 enzyme is an actual physical link between the ... and ...
inner membrane

TCA cycle
electron transport
when you hear electron transport, think ... and vice versa
TCA cycle
Pyruvate dehydrogenase is not formally a part of the TCA cycle, but since we're usually converting it into ... for entry into this cycle, when you hear TCA cycle, think ...
acetyl CoA
PDH
alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase is a ... enzyme
TCA cycle
PDH - decarboxylation of ...(3C) into a ...(2C)

Alphaketogluterate DH - decarboxylation of ...(5C) into a ...(4C)
pyruvate
acetyl CoA

alphaketogluterate
succinyl CoA
what part of the mitochondria contains the soluble enzymes of the TCA cycle?
matrix
what part of the mitochondria contains the enzymes of PDH, alpha-ketogluterate DH, and succinate DH?
inner membrane
what enzyme is complex II of the ETC and is the physical link between the TCA and ETC?
succinate dehydrogenase
the outer space is also known as the ... and it allows for the creation of a pH gradient
innermembrane space
the breakdown product of the glycolytic pathway is ...
pyruvate
the breakdown of fatty acids is known as the ... pathway
beta-oxidation
pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA via the ... chemical reaction
PDH
the end product of the TCA cycle is ... (with captured electrons)

it is funneled through the ETC
NADH
electron transport chain and ... are coupled together
oxidative phosphorylation
there are agents that will uncouple the oxidative phosphorylation of ... to ... from the ETC which leads to medically related issues associated with that uncoupling
ADP
ATP
what is the predominant storage form of fatty acids in the human body?
palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid)
fatty acids are synthesized in the ... world and broken down in the ... world
insulin
glucagon
ketone bodies are synthesized in the ... world and broken down in the ... world
glucagon
glucagon
sugars (galactose, glucose, and fructose) are usually broken down in the ... pathway, broken down to pyruvate, and then pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA
glycolytic
you can have an alpha-keto acid of any chain length. They are derived directly from ...
amino acids
alanine is a 3C AA. When you pull the nitrogen off and put the oxygen on, you now have a 3C ... acid
alpha-keto
pyruvate comes from what amino acid?
Alanine
Ethanol, a 2C entity, can readily and easily be converted into ...
The bad news is that it disrupts the reduction potential of the cell (the NADH/NAD ratio). When you break something down, you strip it of ...
When we break down ethanol, we generate lots of NADH, which is counter productive to the cell
acetyl CoA
electrons
pyruvate, ethanol, the fatty acid palmitate, the ketone body acetoacetate, the sugar glucose, and the amino acid alanine are all compounds that generate ...
acetyl CoA
the purpose of the TCA cycle is to generate ... for entry into the electron transport chain
NADH
the 2 CO2's generated in the TCA cycle came from ...
acetyl CoA
what are the two most important chemical reactions in the TCA cycle?

what is lost in these 2 steps of the chemical reactions?
ICDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase)
alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase

acetyl CoA
you (can or cannot) do any biosynthetic work with acetyl CoA once it gets into the TCA cycle.
cannot
are you able to take fatty acids and convert them back into sugar?
NO
You can do no .... work in the mitochondria because you have blown off the carbons from acetyl CoA
biosynthetic
how many carbons does oxaloacetate carry?
4
how many carbons does citrate carry?
6
2 key enzymes:
-... (breaks down C6 to C5) --> traps e- on back of ... = oxidative decarboxylation, which generates electrons and ...

-... (C5-C4) - another ... and ... generated
-ICDH(isocitrate dehydrogenase)
-NADH
-CO2

-alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase
-NADH
-CO2
succinyl CoA has ... carbons and contains a ... linkage.
Does a ... phosphorylation
Important to remember because a GTP is generated
4
thioester
substrate level
where does GTP come from?
substrate level phosphorylation in the TCA cycle
another ... is generated in the malate dehydrogenase chemical reaction
NADH
... formation = substrate level phosphorylation
GTP
what molecule is a short chain di-carboxylic acid?
succinate
when you hear dehydrogenase, think about...
putting electrons onto something
when you hear succinate dehydrogenase, think ...
FADH
what is the chemical reaction that generates FADH?
succinate dehydrogenase
what are the 3 chemical reactions that generate NADH?
MDH (malate dehydrogenase)
ICDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase)
alpha-ketogluterate dehydrogenase
what is important for energy production and also in the production of sugar (biosynthetic work)?
malate
2 main functions of TCA cycle:
-generate ...
-do ... work (taking off malate and citrate)
energy
biosynthetic
If you pluck of malate to do something else, TCA cycle ... (problem since it's the major energy source for cell).
slows down
... is important for fatty acid biosynthesis
citrate
what TCA intermediate is involved in fatty acid synthesis? (predominantly in insulin world)
citrate
what TCA intermediate is involved in amino acid synthesis only?
oxaloacetate
precursor for heme biosynthesis is ...
succinyl CoA
what TCA intermediate is involved with gluconeogenesis?
(predominantly in liver in glucagon world)
malate
what TCA intermediate is involved with amino acid synthesis and neurotransmitter (brain)?
alpha-ketogluterate
what is the 2nd ABC enzyme and is one of the only enzymes that is active in both the insulin world and the glucagon world?
pyruvate carboxylase
what does ABC enzyme stand for?
utilizes ATP
requires biotin
C4 carboxylase (carboxylation reaction - 3C-->4C)
what is the 1st ABC enzyme and is active and dephosphorylated in the insulin world?
acetyl CoA carboxylase
what activates (and is the regulator for) pyruvate carboxylase?
acetyl CoA
As citrate is taken off for ..., TCA cycle is slowing down and ... is building up. This shuts the ... chemical reaction off (momentarily)
fatty acid biosynthesis
acetyl CoA
PDH
in the insulin world, we are switching back and forth between PDH and ... for every FA that is made
pyruvate carboxylase
pyruvate carboxylase is an ... reaction (a reaction that refills)
-it replenishes C4s in the insulin world
anapleurotic
In glucagon world, integrally related conversion of pyruvate to ... for gluconeogenic production
malate
The TCA cycle is not ... regulated.
-it's regulated by ... level and ... ratio.
hormone
NADH
ATP/ADP
high NADH --> ... ATP
(energy ... state)
high
fed
low ATP --> ... ADP
high ADP --> ... NAD+
(energy ... state)
high
high
starved
true or false:

TCA cycle is almost never turned off
true
In energy fed state (NADH), you turn the cycle (on or off), and in energy starved state (ADP) you turn the cycle (on or off)
off
on
what is the first irriversable step once your in the TCA cycle?
-highly regulated
-most important enzyme in regulation of TCA cycle
ICDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase)
isocitrate dehydrogenase:
-what 2 things activate the cycle?
-what inhibits the cycle?
ADP and Ca2+
NADH
Calcium is a ... regulator. When muscle contraction is going on, it stimulates TCA cycle in order to make sure there is enough energy to contract the muscle
physiological
what are the 3 basic enzyme components for ecoli PDH complex?

this enzyme is big and cubed shaped
E1, E2, and E3
what are the 5 cofactors that PDH uses?
CoASH (coenzyme A)
NAD+
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)
Lipoic acid
FAD
what syndrome to alcoholics often suffer from?
-thiamine deficiency
-they don't have enough energy from the TCA cycle
Warnike's korcicoff syndrome
PDH regulation:
ADP and pyruvate will (activate or inhibit) kinase, keeping an (active or inactive) form of PDH
inhibit
active
ADP and pyruvate (stimulate or turn off) PDH

Acetyl CoA and NADH will (stimulate or turn off) PDH

Calcium will ... PDH
stimulate
turn off

activate