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85 Cards in this Set

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The process through which the senses pick up visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain.
Sense that is considered most valuable
Theory of color vision suggesting that three kinds of cells respond by increasing or decreasing their rate of firing when different colors are present
~ Red/green: increase firing rate when red but decrease when green
~yellow/blue: inc: yellow & dec: blue
~ white: increase, absence of light: decrease
~~If you look long enough at one color in this process and then look at a white surface, your brain will give you the sensation of the opposite color, negative
Ex. american flag
Opponent - Process Theory
A visual sensation that remains after a stimulus is withdrawn
Point in each retina where there are no rods or cones because the cabale of ganglion cells is extending through the retinal wall
Blindspot ( optic disk)
Small area at center of retina that provides the clearest and sharpest vision because it has the largest concentration of cones
~ used for detail things (ex: sewing)
Light-sensitive receptor cells in retina that enable humans to see color and fine detail in adequate light but do not funtion in very dim light.
~Bright light, color, detail
~Back of retina
Light-sensitive receptor cells in the retina that look like slender cylinders and allow the eye to respond to as few as five photons of light.
~Low illumination levels
~Back of retina
The layer of tissue that is located on the inner surface of the eyeball & contains the sensory receptors for vision.
~Size of small postage stamp & thins as onion skin
The process by which sensory information is activiely organized and interpreted by the brain.
Gender differences in color blindness
more common in men.
A German word that roughly refers to the whole form, pattern, or configuration that a person perceives.
Gestalt Principles of Grouping (Gestalt)
As we view the world, some object often seems to stand out from the background.
~Picure of wine glass or two faces looking at eachother
Objects that have similar characteristics are perceived as a unit.
~Dots of a similar color are perceied as belonging together to form horizontal rows on the left and vertical columns on the right. +++++
Objects that are close together in space or time are usually perceived as belonging together, Because of their spacing, the lines in this example are perceived as three pairs of lines rather tahn as five seperate lines


We tend to pereceive figures or objects as belonging together if they appear to form a continous pattern.
~ Flow into pattern(p104)
We perceive figures with gaps in them to be complete. Even though parts of this figure are missing, we see this as squiggly line. ~~~~~~~~~~
ex: the circle()
See best/most correct
~Needing two eyes
~Retinal disparity: each retina has a different image
~convergence: eyes crossing on near objects
Binocular depth cues
~One eye
~Interposition: overlaping column etc.
When one object partly blocks your view of another, you perceive the partially blocked object as being farther away (drapes overlapping column)
Interposition (monocular)
Parallel lines that are known to be the same distance apart appear to grow closer together, or converge, as they reced into the distance.
~on drawing
Linear perspective (monocular)
Larger objects are perceived as being closer to the viewer, and smaller objects as being farther away.
Relative size (monocular)
Objects close to you appear to have sharply defined features, and similar objects that are farther away appear progressively less well-defined or fuzzier in texture.
~near are more shaped and textured
Texture gradient (monocular)
Objects in the distance have a bluish tint and appear more blurred than objects close at hand
Atmosphere perspective (monocular)
When light falls on object, they cas shadows, which add to the perception of depth
When you ride in a moving vehicle and look out the side window, the objects you see outside appear to be moving in the opposite direction and at different speeds; those closest to you appear to be moving faster than those in the distance. Objects very far away, such as the moon and the sun, appear to move in distance. Objects very far away, such as the moon and the sun, appear to move in the same direction as the viewer.
Motion parallax
A false perception or a misperception of an actual stimulus in the environment
EX: Moon looks small in the ski, but huge when going up or down
Everything of which we are aware at any given time- our thoughts, feelings, sensations, and external environment.
Within each 24-hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors.
~ Body temp: normal body temp. ranges from low of 97 between 3-4am to a high of about 98.6 between 6 to 8 pm. Sleep best when low and most alert at high temp
circadian rhythm
A pair of tiny structures in the brain's hypothalamus that control the timing of circadian rhythms: bio clock
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Most important is bright light, sunlight.
Environmental cues
More you have, the more sleepy you are
Hormone Melatonin
When going to lets say Australia and arent used to the time difference. It is actually 9 am and you feel like it is midnight
Jet lag
Jet Lag and disorders
Travelers whose psychiatric disorders are in remission are at reisk of suffering relapses when they cross several time zones.
~Alsochronic jet lag, such as that experienced by many airline polots and flight attendants, produces memory deficits that may be permanent.
Average number of hours of sleep per nigt and its relationship to longevity
they say that those who sleep 7 hours every night live longer than those who sleep more or less then this.
4 stages of NREM and 1 stage of REM
Non-rapid eye movement sleep, which consists of four sleep stages and is characterized by slow, regular respiration and heart rate, little body movement, an absence of rapid eye movements, and blod pressure and brain activity that are at their 24-hour low points
NREM sleep
A type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movemtents, paralysis of large muscles, fast andirregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain-wave activity, and vivid dreams
REM sleep
The increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation; often associated with unpleasant dreams or nightmares.
REM rebound
Causes of REM rebound
General sleep loss or illness. Alcohol, amphhetamines, cocaine, and LSD also supress REM sleep, and withdrawal from drugs result in a REM rebound.
REM as we age
Most: infants Less when you get older
Negative aspects of sleep deprivation (3)
Mood, alertness, and performance.
Sleep disturbances in which behavior and physiological states that normally take place only in the waking state occur while a person is sleeping.
sleepwalking; a parasomnia that occurs during partial arousal; from stage 4 sleep
a sleep disturbance that occurs during partial arousal from Stage 4 sleep, in shich the sleeper springs up in a stae of panic
sleep terrors
frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep and are likely to be remembered in vivid default.
sleeptalking: parasomnia that can occur during any sleep stage.
A sleep disorder characterized by periods during sleep when breathing stops and the individual must awaken briefly in order to breathe
sleep apnea
a procedure through which one person, the hypnotist, uses power of suggestion to induce changes in thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, or behavior in another person, the subject.
What can hypnosis help and not help
Can help with pain, BP, morning sickness, asthma, insomnia, phobias, DID, PTSD, warts, burns, nightmares, sexual sysfunction.
Cant help: smoking, weight loss, drug addiction
any substance that alters mood, perception, or thought; called a controlled substance if approved for medical use.
psychoactive drug
1) Neurobiological: pleasant physiological state producd by stimulant
2) Heredity: alchohol: small amount for some and alot for others
3)Psychological and Social
4)Protective Factors
Four factors that influence how addictive a drug can be
A compulsive pattern of drug use in which the user develops a drug tolerance coupled with unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug use is discontinued
Physical drug dependence
A condition in which the user becomes progressively less affected by the drug and must take larger and larger doses to maintain the same effect or high.
Drug tolerance
The physical and psychological symptoms (usually the exact opposite of the effects produced by the drug) that occur when a regularly used drug is discontinued and that terminate when the druge is taken again
withdrawal symptoms
a craving or irresistible urge for a drug's pleasurable effects
~More difficult to combat
Psychological drug dependence
A category of drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system, suppress appetite, and can cause a person to feel more awake, alert, and energetcic; "uppers"
Stimulants (4)
caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
a category of drugs that decrease activity in the central nervous system, slow down bodily functions, and reduce sensitivity to outside stimmulation; "downers"
(3) Depressants
Barbiturates, Minor tranquilizers, Narcotics
A category of drugs that can alter and distort perception oftime and space, alter mood, produce feelings of unreality, and cause hallucinations;also called psychedelics
Hallucinogens (3)
Marijuana, LSD, Designer Drugs
A person who poses as a participant in an experiment but is actually assisting the experimenter
attributing a behavior to some external cause or factor operating within the situation; an external attribution
Situational attribution
An assignment of a cause to explain one's own or another's behavior
attributing a behavior to some internal cause, such as a personal trait, motive, or attitude; an internal attribution
dispositional attribution
the tendency to attribute one's successes to dispositional causes and one's failures to situational causes
self-serving bias
the tendency to feel more postively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated exposure to it.

EX: keep seeing person, more you like him/her
Mere-exposure effect
~ Symmetrical, more attractive
~ Nicer to those who are attractive
Physical attraction
The tendency to assume that a person has generally postive or negative traits as a result of observing one major positive or negative trait.
Halo effect
The notion that people tend to have lovers or spouses who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness and other assets.
Matching Hypothesis
Men prefer in mating partner
beautiful, young, and novelty women
Women prefer in mating partner:
resources, and shared parental investment
Asch's line test
All but one of the "subjects" were really confederates of the experimenter. They deliberately chose the wrong line to try to influence the naive subject to go along with the majority.
Changing or adopting a behavior or an attitude in order to be consistent with the social norms of a group or the expectations of other people.
36 out of 40 naive participants (90%) defied the experimenter before the maximum shock could be given
acting in accordance with the wishes, suggestions, or direct requests of other people
a strategy designed to gain a favorable response to a small request at first, with the intent of making the person more likely to agree later to a larger request.
foot-in-the-door technique
A strategy in which someone makes a large, unreasonable request with the expectation that the person will refuse but will then be more likely to respond favorablly to a smaller request later.
door-in-the-face technique
A strategy in which someone makes a very attractive initila offer to get a person to commit to an action and then makes the terms less favorable
Low-ball techinque
Group meeting are more powerful than just one person to be more extreme about an idea
group polarization
a deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes and/or behavior of another person.
Four elements of persuasion
1)Source 2)Audience 3) Message 4) Medium
Sherif's Robber's Cave experiment
"cure" for aggression was cooperation
~Working together to push the truck