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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the walls of the thoracic cavity are ... and ...
bone
muscle
the thoracic cavity includes everything inside the ...
thorax
the thoracic cavity has a ... shaped cross section
kidney
there are # compartments to the thoracic cavity
3
the 2 pulmonary cavities:
-lateral within the thoracic cavity
-each filled with a "balloon" of ...
-... cavity: inside the "balloon"
-lungs: "wrapped" within 2 layers of the ... ("fist in a balloon")
-lungs push into ...
pleura
pleural
pleura
pleura
what is the 3rd compartment that is situated centrally between the "balloons"?
mediastinum
virtually everything is in the mediastinum except for the ...
pleural cavities
pleural membranes:
-all one membrane (on each side) = ...
-analogy for lung: "..."
-visceral and parietal pleurae are ... at the root of the lung
balloon
fist into a balloon
continuous
Pleural cavity = ... within the balloon:
-lung develops --> space "flattens out" --> becomes a ... space with a thin layer of ... inside it (with negative pressure)
space
potential
fluid
visceral pleura:
-inner lining
-covers and attaches to lung ...
-extends into ... and ... fissures (divides into lobes)
-(sensitive/insensitive) to pain. (contains/does not contain) pain receptors
intimately
oblique
horizontal
insensitive
does not contain
parietal pleura:
-lines wall of ... cavity (bony wall)
-(can/cannot) be detached from wall
-name based on ...: costal(ribs), mediastinal, diaphragmatic, cervical(dome at top)
-pulmonary "..."
-(sensitive/insensitive) to pain
thoracic
can
location
"ligament"
sensitive
costal parietal pleura innervated by ...
intercostal nerves
mediastinal and diaphragmatic parietal pleura innervated by the ... nerves
phrenic
pulmonary ligament:
-no clinical relevance
-where ... and ... meet
parietal pleura
visceral pleura
what is it called when there is air inside the thorax?
pneumothorax
pulmonary collapse:
-lungs are elastic (can collapse to # of distended volume)
-... = collapse
1/3
atelectasis
causes of pulmonary collapse (anything that gets into the pleural cavity):
-air = ...
-blood = ...
-other fluid - ...
pneumothorax
hemothorax
hydrothorax
causes of pneumothorax:

-... of thoracic wall
-knife, bullet, etc. tearing parietal pleura
-allows air into pleural cavity
-penetrating parietal pleura from outside
puncture
causes of pneumothorax:

-... of visceral pleura
-and example would be ... (alveoli would break and allow air to get in)
-penetrating visceral pleura from inside
rupture
emphysema
an alveoli with emphysema has less ... that allows for less exchanging of gases, making it more difficult to breathe
surface area
what is a door or an opening called?
ostium
what is this?

-artificial opening; between 2 hollow organs or between such an organ and the body wall
ostomy
what is an artificial opening through the thoracic wall into the pleural cavity called?
thoracostomy
for someone with pneumothorax, you would put in a tube thoracostomy and suck air out to restore the ... and re-expand the lung
negative pressure
what is this?
-perforation or tapping, as with a needle
centesis
thoracocentesis:

-needle is used to sample or withdraw fluid from a ... recess
-needle may be introduced into the pleural cavity in the midaxillary line in the # intercostal space
costodiaphragmatic
9th
... stands for cutting or incision
-otomy
what is a surgical incision of the chest wall called?
thoracotomy
left lung:

-# lobes separated by ...
-cardiac ...
-...: tongue like projection that is part of the upper/superior lobe
-...for arch of aorta and descending (medial aspect)
2
oblique fissure
notch
lingula
groove
right lung:

- # lobes, which are called ... (and are separated by ... fissures)
-larger (because left contains heart), heavier, shorter (because of ...), and wider than left
-grooves for superior vena cava (SVC), arch of ... vein, and esophagus
3
superior, middle, inferior
oblique and horizontal
liver
azygos
the ... of the lung is where everything enters and leaves
hilus
Root of lung enters at hilus:

-... (superior)
-... (anterior and inferior)
-... (central)
-autonomic nn.
-lymphatics
pulmonary artery
pulonary veins
primary bronchus
if a child swallows something, it's more likely go get lodge in the ... primary bronchi because it's wider and more vertical
right
Tracheobranchial tree:

-the trachea has 2 branches, which are...
primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
primary bronchi:

-... - shorter, wider, more vertical
-... - passes under aortic arch, more horizontal, longer
right
left
primary bronchi divide into ... bronchi
secondary
secondary bronchi:

-also called "..."
-how many on the left?
-how many on the right?
"lobar"
2
3
secondary bronchi divide into ... bronchi

-how many on left?
-how many on right?
tertiary
8-10
10
Bronchopulmonary segments:

-... shape: base at surface of lung; apex pointing to ... of lung
-supplied by one tertiary/segmental ...
-supplied by one tertiary branch of ...
-separated from adjacent segments by connective tissue ...
-the ... make it easy to resect/remove a diseased segment
-# on right; #-# on left
pyramidal
root
bronchus
pulmonary artery
septa
septa
10
8-10
pulmonary arteries (comes from heart):
-(low/high) O2 blood from right side of heart
-branches: lobar --> segmental --> ...
low
bronchopulmonary segments
pulmonary veins:
-(low/high) oxygen blood to left side of heart
-# on each side from lung to left atrium
high
2
which side of the heart receives the good, oxygenated blood?
left
bronchial arteries:
-difficult to see. look at the ... of the lung
-... for the lung tissues
-distally: anastomose with ... branches
root
nutrition
pulmonary a.
bronchial veins:
-drain the more ... parts of lung
-... parts drained by pulmonary veins
proximal
distal
innervation of the lungs:

-... somatic: no ... muscle
not
skeletal
innervation of the lungs: Parasympathetic via ...

-bronchoconstrictor (... smooth m.)
-vasodilator (... smooth m.)
-secretomotor to glands (...)
CN 10 - vagus
stimulate
inhibit
stimulate
Innervation of the lungs: sympathetic from ... (T1-L2)

-bronchodilator (... smooth m.)
-vasoconstrictor (... smooth m.)
-... glands of bronchial tree
sympathetic chain
inhibit
stimulate
inhibit
sensory (afferent) innervation:

-lung tissue (visceral reflexes: pressure, chemical, stretch via ...) (has/does not have pain receptors)
-visceral pleura: (has/does not have) innervation
-parietal pleura: ... and ... nn. (rich supply of pain receptors)
CN 10 - vagus
does not have
does not have
intercostal
phrenic
what is this?
-refers to a thickening of connective tissue that covers the apex of each lung
suprapleural membrane
what is this?
-visceral or parietal pleura is inflamed and becomes rough
-adhesions between these 2 layers may result
pleuritis or pleurisy
pleuritis or pleurisy:
-during respiration, friction created by the adhesions may be audible as a ...
-patients with ... pleurisy may experience sharp pain localized over the adhesion site that increases with inspiration
-patients with ... or ... pleurisy may have pain that is referred over the C3 through C5 dermatomes in the supraclavicular region
pleural rub
costal
mediastinal
diaphragmatic
what condition is this?
-air introduced into pleural cavity
-lung may undergo partial or complete atelectasis (collapse)
-pain and difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
pneumothorax
which type of pneumothorax is this?
-penetrating wound pierces costal or cervical pleura
-pain from stimulation of intercostal nerves
-negative pressure in affect lung is lost so it collapses, shifting structures away from affected side to compress opposite lung
-during expiration, air expelled, so structures shift back
-reduced venous return to heart
open pneumothorax
which pneumothorax is this?
-penetrating wound of the pleura creates a valve-like effect in pleura during respiration
-during expiration, flap of pleural tissue prevents the expulsion of air. Intrapleural pressure is increased with each breath, and shift of heart and mediastinal structures to the opposite side is augmented.
-cardiac output, venous return, and respiratory function compromised
tension pneumothorax
what is this?
-accumulation of fluid in pleural cavity
-may be caused by obstruction of veins or lymphatic vessels that drain the thorax or by an inflammation of structures near the pleura
pleural effusion
what is this?
-blood accumulates in pleural cavity from hemorrhage of anterior or posterior intercostal vessels or internal thoracic vessels
hemothorax
what is this?
-lymph accumulates in a pleural cavity as a complication of mediastinal surgery or trauma that injures the thoracic duct
chylothorax
breath sounds from superior lobe may be auscultated on the ... and ... aspects of the thoracic wall
anterior
superior
breath sounds from the inferior lobe may be auscultated on the ... and ... aspects of the back
posterior
inferior
breath sounds from the middle lobe of the ... lung may be auscultated on the anterior chest wall near the ..., inferior to the ... costal cartilage
right
sternum
right 4th
foreign body aspiration:
-more likely to enter the ... main bronchus because it is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the ... main bronchus
-in a patient who is standing or sitting, the foreign body tends to become lodged in the posterobasal segment of the ... lobe of the ... lung
right
left
inferior
right
emphysema:
-respiratory tissue is destroyed, resulting in a permanent abnormal enlargement and increased radiolucency of the affected air spaces and the formation of ... or ...
blebs
bullae
what is this?
-an emphysematous bleb spontaneously ruptures
-air is introduced into the pleural cavity through the visceral pleura
-most common site of this is in the visceral pleura of the superior lobe of a lung
spontaneous pneumothorax
bronchogenic carcinomas:
-may metastasize through ... channels
-may penetrate wall of tributary of pulmonary vein and metastasize through the pulmonary and systematic circulation
lymph
supraclavicular lymph nodes may act as sentinal nodes indicating the presence of a malignancy:

-enlarged on the ... = malignancy in thorax
-enlarged on the ... = malignancy in thorax, abdomen, or pelvis
right
left
what type of carcinoma is this?
-one that develops in the apical part of the superior lobe of either lung and may cause thoracic outlet syndrome
Pancoast carcinoma
Thoracic outlet syndrome:
-from compression of sympathetic trunk at level of stellate ganglion --> (what syndrome?)
-inferior trunk of brachial plexus in root of neck --> ...
-subclavian vessels --> decreased ... in upper limb
-recurrent laryngeal nerve --> ... and ...
horner's syndrome
horner's syndrome
radial pulse
hoarseness and dysphagia
primary carcinomas that develop in other organs commonly metastasize to the ...
lungs