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60 Cards in this Set

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measures individuals of various ages at one point in time and gives information about age differences
cross-sectional method
measures a single individeual or group of individuals over an extended period and gives information about age changes
longitudinal methode
development governed by automatic, genetically predetermined signals
piaget's third stage (roughly age 7 to 11); the child can perform mental operations on concrete objects and understand reveribility and conservation, but abstract thinking is not yet present
concrete operational stage
understanding that certain physical characteristics (such as volume) remain unchanged, even when their outward appearance changes
the inability to consider another's point of view, which Piaget considered a hallmarc of the preoperational stage
piaget's fourth stage (around age 11 and beyond), characterized by abstract and hypothetical thinking
formal operational stage
piagetian term for an infant's understanding that objects (or people) continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched directly
object permanence
piaget's second stage (roughly age 2 to 7), characterized by the ability to employ significant language and to think sybolically, but the child lacks operations (reversible mental processes), and thinking is egocentric and animistic
preoperational stage
piaget's first stage (birth to approximately age 2 years), in which schemas are developed through sensory and motor activities
sensorimotor stage
cognitive structures or patterns consisting of a number of organized ideas that grow and diifferentiate with experience
a strong affectiona bond with special others that endures over time
an innate form of learning within a critical period that involves attatchment to the first large moving object seen
kohlberg's second level of moral development, where moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society
conventional level
kohlberg's first level of moral development, in which morality is based on rewards, punishment, and exchange of favors
preconventional level
erikson's term for an adolescent's serch for self, which requires intense self-reflection and questioning
identity crisis
erikson's theory that indviduals pass through eight developmental stages, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved
psychosocial stages
an individual's innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response
successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life
activity theory
sucessful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal between the elderly and society
disengagement theory
combining characteristics considered typically male (assertive, athletic) with characteristics considered typically female (yielding, nurturant); from the Greek andro, meaning "male," and gyn meaning "female"
self-identification as either a man or a woman
gender identity
societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior
gender roles
primary erotic attraction toward members of the same sex (homosecual, gay or lesbian), both sexes (bisexual), or other sex (hetrosexual)
sexual orientation
first stage of the sexual response cycle, characterized by increasing levels of arousal and increased engorgement of the genitals
excitement phase
third stage of the sexual response cycle, when pleasurable sensations peak and orgasm occurs
orgasm phase
second stage of the sexual response cycle characterised by a leveling off in a state of high arousal
plateau phase
phase following orgasm, during which further orgasm is considered physiologically impossible for men
refractory period
final stage of the sexual response cycle, when the body returns to its unaroused state
resolution phase
beliefs, values, and norms that subtly encourage male sexuality and discourage female sexuality
double standard
fear of being judged in connection with sexual activity
perfomance anxiety
classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors; the "IV-TR" indicates it is the text revision (TR) of the fourth major revision (IV)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions, or are judged incompetent to manage their own affairs, because of mental in
serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental disruption and loss of contact with reality
persistent, uncontrollable, and free foalting anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
intrusive, repetitive fearful thoughts (obsessions), urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors (compulsions)
obsessive-compulsive disorder
sudden and inexplicable planic attacks' symptoms include difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, dizziness, trembling, terror, and feelings of impending doom
panic disorder
intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression
bipolar disorder
long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleaseure, or maintain interest in life
major depressive disorder
imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without external stimuli
group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations
profound disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
antisocial personality disorder
impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships, and self-image
borderline personality disorder
co-occurrence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time, as when a person suffers from both depression and alcoholism
presense of two or more distict personality systems in the same individual at different times, previosly known as multiple personality disorder
dissociative identity disorder
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significatn impairment of social and occupational functioning
personality disorders
abuse of, or dependenc on, a mood- or behavior-altering drug
substance-related disorders
rogers's therapy emphasizing the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive' techniques include empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening
client-centered therapy
therapy the focuses on faulty thought processes and belifes to treat problem behaviors
cognitive therapy
in psychoanalisis, reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its contents
free association
therapy to maximize personal growth through affecive restructuring (emotional readjustment)
humanistic therapy
freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences, into consciousness; also Freud's theoretical school of thought emphasizing unconcious processes
in psychoanalysis, the patient may displace (or transfer) unconcious feelings about a significant person in his or her life onto the therapist
rogers's term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
unconditional positive regard
pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
aversion therapy
group of techniques based on learning preiciples used to change maladaptive behaviours
behavior therapy
medications used to treat anxiety disorders
antianxiety drugs
madications used to diminish or elimiate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, and other symptoms of psychosis, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers
antipsychotic drugs
biomedical therapy based on passing electical current through the brain; used almost exclusively to treat serious depression when drug therapy does not work
electroconvulsive therapy