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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Food production, as opposed to foraging, is a phenomenon of the past 20,000 years:
Wild wheat and barley were important stable foods for forager groups in the highland and river valleys of the fertile crescent:
The greatest climate and vegetation changes after the retreat of the ice sheets took place in the Northern latitudes:
After 10,000 B.C., human population in some areas began to match or exceed the natural carrying capacity of the land:
Native American societies, unlike others, did not develop any special expertise with wild plant foods:
Holocene foragers compensated for periodic food shortages by using storage and careful seasonal exploitation of game, plant, and aquatic resources:
As people settled down, one found in all places a much greater dependence on freshwater and marine resources:
At the end of the Ice Age, foragers in drought-prone subtropical areas of Southwestern Asia and highland Mesopotamia were more intensively exploiting potentially domesticable wild grass and root plants:
Flotation allows the recovery of seeds from excavated material:
Individual seeds or bits of root cannot be accurately dated by AMS method:
Many variables must be studied and understood before we can determine what agriculture was first seen as a profitable task, as central rather than peripheral:
The causes behind deliberate cultivation of plants and domestication of animals are well understood:
Food production automatically led to urbanization and the rise of civilization:
Food production brought greater social complexity and new technologies:
The development of agriculture dramatically improved human health:
Archaeological data recovery is now routinely combined with:
Data from other sciences
Gordon Childe the development of village farming the Agricultural or _______________ Revolution:
As people became successful farmers, the demand for _______________ grew:
Exotic raw material
As people settled down and farmed, trade networks:
Grew wider
The Koster site is important for studying food production because:
It shows the evolution of a wide range of food resource use through time
Indication of social complexity among the Chumash include:
1.) Hereditary chiefs
2.) Shamans
3.) Expert canoe builders
Two prerequisites for social complexity are:
Higher population densities and larger base camps
The use of _______________, _________________, and _________________ is a multidisciplinary approach that has provided detailed environmental data about early farming:
Pollen samples, oceanic cores, and tree ring dating
_______________ revolutionized our knowledge of ancient farming:
Archeological data is now routinely combined with:
Data from other sciences
The Kumeyaay Indians _______________ their landscape by planting trees at high altitudes and desert plants below. This became a pre adaptation to farming.
When a permanent community lives year round at one place, it is:
Some groups adopted agriculture later than others because they had:
Much game and many edible plant species
Food production led to new technologies for storage and _______________:
Features found at early farming sites, but not early hunting sites, include:
Clay-lined pots
In early villages where folks built homes of _______________, their homes were_______________.
Mud-brick, permanent
With the onset of agriculture, the concept of ________________ arose:
Land ownership
_______________, a technique for the recovery of seed and pollen, allows for the development of botanical data:
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating) is used to:
Date objects that are almost microscopic (a single seed)
Robert Braidwood argued that agriculture started on the _______________ of southwestern Asia:
Hilly flanks
The nutritional differences between farmers and foragers reveal that:
Foragers ate a better balanced diet
Early farmers used fewer animals and plants than their foraging ancestors:
The spread of food production across the globe took about _______________ years:
Some animals are easier to domesticate than others. Among their traits are:
In order to domesticate an animal, humans had to:
Constrain its movement and regulate its breeding
The first 2 animal species to be domesticated in southwestern Asia were:
Goats and Sheep
Tapping is an effective way of harvesting wild grains because the grain is attached to the stem by a brittle joint called:
According to Gordon Hillman, conscious selection of non-shattering grain could have been accomplished in ________________ years.
Domestication implies _______________ emphasizing features of continuing use to members of a given culture.
Genetic selection
As the climate around Abu Hureya dried up before 10,200 B.C., its inhabitants turned to foraging for:
Cereal grains
When the people of Abu Hureya first began to occupy the site, they lived in _______________ with reed roofs, but their housing improved until it consisted of _______________. This occurred with the shift in their substance base.
Pit houses, one story mud houses
Carrying heavy loads on their heads resulted in _______________ vertebrae in some people of Abu Hureya.
Kneeling, tucking toes under the foot, to grind grain and do other tasks tends to cause:
Jericho yields evidence of _______________ in the form of human skulls with plastered faces.
Ancestor Worship
_______________ is one of the best known, earliest farming villages excavated in the Zagros Mountains of Iran.
Abu Hureya
The village of Alli Kosh documents _______________ years of farming and herding in Mesopotamia and shows a striking continuity in seasonal herding patterns.
Some of the best evidence we have of the cattle herders of the Sahara Desert c. 6000 B.C. is:
Their art
The best-known early European farming culture, called Bandkeramik after its distinct line-decorated pottery, first appeared in the _______________ valley around 5300 B.C.
Middle Danube
Defensive measures against raiders were required at many agricultural communities; the defensive mechanism adopted by the families of Catalhoyuk included:
Outside walls of mud brick houses with rooftop entries
The subsistence strategy adopted by European farmers was based on food supplies provided by:
Individual households
The archaeological remains of a Bandkeramik settlement would include:
Artifacts, rubbish pits, and posthole features
Fine-grained excavation practices now enable researchers to document:
Foraging practices
North Chinese agriculture is based on _______________ instead of rice:
The best-known early farming culture of China is the _______________.
Yangtze River sites show increasing social complexity based on artifacts from:
Based on _______________, wild and domesticated rice were eaten at Xianrendong cave.
Radiocarbon analysis of the San Marcos cave maize cobs date them to _______________ B.C., but the San Andreas date, _______________, is still earlier.
3600, 5100
Andean farmers domesticated animals, including the:
Guinea pig
Well-documented potato tubers come from midden sites dating back to _______________ B.C., at the mouth of the Casma River Valley on the Peruvian Coast.
Potatoes were cultivated at least as early as _______________, if not earlier.
2000 B.C.
Sedentary Peruvian coastal folk depend more on _______________ than farming:
Abundant fish and sea mammals
When one considers agricultural communities, it is remarkable:
They so quickly produced state-organized societies and elaborate chiefdoms
Domestication rarely increases mutual interdependence of animals and humans:
We will likely find transitional forms between wild and domesticated grains:
As a result of village life and farming, Jordan and Euphrates valley populations increased, over 2000 years, from a few thousand to tens of thousands.:
The early village (9000 B.C.) of Abu Hureya had a settlement pattern of narrow lanes, courtyards, and rectangular mud-brick houses:
Domestication marks animal bones in a way that shows the existence of herding:
In searching for the cause of arthritic conditions among the Abu Hureya villagers, biological anthropologists have used text aids (e.g. tomb paintings):
Sea mammals were often domesticated because by the time of the Neolithic, ocean-going vessels were being produced by the people of Levant:
Unlike their counterparts in southwestern Asia, Egyptian farmers turned to farming wheat and barley:
Men herded cattle in the region of the Sahara highlands, letting them graze on grasslands along the shores of shallow lakes:
Early on, European farmers integrated cultivation of plants and animal rearing:
Bandkeramik villages tended to be rather large, with 600 or more inhabitants:
By using ethnographic analogy, communal tombs and sepulchers in early farming communities, archaeologists infer ancestors were guardians of land:
Diffusion, not independent invention, was the mechanism for the onset of farming in Europe:
Archaeologists have a complete picture of the domestication of rice: