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45 Cards in this Set

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Connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle fiber.
Endomysium
A bundle of muscle fibers.
Fascicle
Connective tissue that surrounds each fascicle (bundle of muscle fibers).
Perimysium
The outtermost layer of muscle.
Epimysium
Connective tissue sheets that separate each muscle.
Fascia
The part of the muscle that moves the least. Usually either proximal or medial to the body. (stationary)
Origin
The part of the muscle that moves the most. Usually either distal or lateral to the body. (mobile)
Insertion
Dense connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.
Tendon
Plasma membrane of a muscle fiber.
Sarcolemma
Cytoplasm of muscle fiber that contains special enzymes.
Sarcoplasm
A bundle of myofilaments forming an internal subdivision of a cardiac or skeletal muscle cell.
Myofibrils
Proteins responsible for contraction of a muscle cell, composed mainly of actin and myosin.
Myofilaments
The portion of a myofibril from one Z line to the next. Contractile of a muscle fiber.
Sarcomere
Smooth ER of a muscle cell serving as a resevior for calcium ions.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Extensions of the sarcolemma that connects to the cristerae.
T-tubules
Increase in action potential when Sodium diffuses into a cell.
Depolarization
Decrease in action potential when Potassium diffuses out of a cell.
Repolarization
Dumps the ACh molecules onto the cell membrane.
Axon Terminal
A junction between two exciteable cells.
Synapse
A synapse between a nerve fiber and a muscle fiber.
Neuromuscular Junction
A small gap that separates two cells.
Synaptic Cleft
A neurotransmitter released by neurons.
ACh
Depression on the sarcolemma that contains neurotransmiter receptors.
Motor End Plate
The hardening of muscles and the stiffening of the body.
Rigor Mortis
All muscle cells controlled by a single motor neuron.
Motor Unit
Responses of a muscle to a single brief threshold stimulus.
Muscle Twitch
Time between stimulus and contraction the a muscle fiber.
Latent Period
The period in which the sliding filament theory occurs.
Contraction Phase
The muscle relaxes, nerve signals are not sent.
Relaxation Phase
Sarcomeres cannot retun to resting length.
Wave Summation
As a muscle repeatedly contracts, it has no time to relax.
Tetanus
Muscle is unable to contract.
Muscle Fatigue
A recruitment of more motor units.
Multiple Motor Unit Summation
These allow the brain to know what condition the muscle is in.
Muscle Spindles
This moves a phosphate from an ADP to another ADP to create ATP.
Myokinase
Compounds that serves as an alternative energy source for muscle.
Creatine Phosphate
A process such as glycolysis that requires NO oxygen to produce energy.
Aerobic Process
Two cycles such as the Kreb's Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorilation that need oxygen in order to create ATP.
Anaerobic Process
The volume of oxygen required after exercise to oxidize the lactice acid.
The Oxygen Debt
A synthesis reaction.
Anabolism
The decomposition of a reaction.
Catabolism
Supplying the cells of the body with oxygen and disposing carbon dioxide.
Respiration
Chemical reactions that results in the production of ATP.
Cellular respiration
Coupled reactions that pass energy in the form of electrons.
Redox Reactions
These coenzymes are constantly being oxidized and reduced to transport electrons and hydrogen ions.
NAD and FAD