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82 Cards in this Set

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Recombinant DNA Technology made it possible for Ability to manipulate genes in _____ and in _____
Vitro;Vivo
Vitro means in ____ ____
Vivo means in _______ _______
test tube;living organism
Obtaining the ability to manipulate genes in vitro and in vivo made it possible to combine 2 or more ____ ________ from any sorce;Insert foreign DNA into ______ ______;construct _______ chromosones;and Selectivly alter/interfere with ____ ________
DNA Sequences;Cloning Vector;artificial;Gene Expression
What was a revoultion for Biology??
Abilty to manipulate genes in vitro and in vivo
We now have a detailed understanding in ____ _______,_______ and ________
gene structure,function and evolution
Because of the revolution in Biology,we have noe completed most _______ projects and have had numerous _______,________,and _______ applications
Genome;commercial,forensic,medical
Revolution in Biology was made possible by convergence of scientific discoveries such as ______ enzymes,DNA _____,and ______ of bacteria and their plasmids
restriction,ligase,genetics
There are many concerns about the safety in Recombinant DNA revolution. An example is concerns about cancer in _____ ________ therepy.People feel it should be ______.
Gene Replication;tested
______ concerns,______ engineered food,and concerns of _______ with the virulent virus/bacteria that scientists conducted.Are some of the concerns with Revolution in recombinant DNA Tech.
Ecological;Genetically;Terroism
_____ likely evolved from reverse transcription of RNA
DNA
DNA has a _____ helix of ___-______ polynucleotide chains
double;anti-parallel
DNA structure was discovered by ______ and _____
Watson and Crick
DNA is a _________ sugar
Dna contains _______
Deoxyribose;Phosphate
DNA has ________ bases made up of ______ and ________
Nitrogeneous;Purines;Pyrimidines
Purines are made up of ______ and ________
adenine and thymine
Pyrimidines are made up of _______ and _______
guanine and cytosine
Chromosones have a _____ _____ helix of DNA
single double
Chromosones have nemerous ______(_____,_____);_______;and ________ sequences
genes(exons,introns);promoters;regulatory
Chromosones _______ to form exact copies
These copies are segregated in ______ _______,_______ and _______
replicate;Binary Fission,Meiosis and Mitosis
_________ are subject to evolution
Chromosones
With advances in Recombinant DNA Technology we are able to ____ and _____ DNA Molecules
_____,______,and _______ recombinant DNA molecules
And ______ recombinant DNA molecules into organisms
cut and rejoin;Clone,Express,Sequence;Insert
_______ _________ are able to cleave DNA at specific sites
Restriction Endonucleases
The ability to cut DNA at specific sites is significant bcuz it allows a form of physical _______ and allows________ molecules
mapping;recombinant
Physical maps can be constructed on the positioning of _______ sites for restriction enzymes
Cleavage
2 types of Restriction Enzymes:
Type 1 enzymes make _____ cuts across ____ DNA Strands and are not often used in _______ or manipulating DNA
Type 2 enzymes allow creation of ________ molecules
simple,both,cloning
Recombinant
The _____ ____ that result from the cut by type2 restriction enzymes allow DNA from different sources to be easily joined together
sticky ends
____ _____ catalyzes formation of phosphodiester bond b/w phosphate and hydroxyl groups of DNA nucleotides
DNA Ligase
A ____ is a break in one strand with no gap
Nick
The action of DNA Ligase is to seal the _____ in one or both strands
nicks
_______ ________ sever phosphodiester bonds of both nucleotide strands
Restriction Endonucleases
Restriction Endonucleases create restriction _______
Fragments
There are ______ of known Restriction Endonucleases
Hundreds
The restriction fragment ends made by same enzyme are _______ and can be ______
identical;joined
_____ sequences of DNA are synthesized in Vitro
Short
The _____ can enter and replicate in the host
Vector
The 2 most commomly used vectors are _____ and ______
Plasmids and Phages
______ are viruses that infect bacterial cells
Phages
In cloning,there is a insertion of a _______ _______ into the cloning vector
restriction fragment
In gene cloning,there is a transformation of bacteria with recombinant ______,virus
Plasmid
In Gene Cloning there is a _______ for clone of interest
screening
A use of a cloned gene is to determine _______ sequence and _____ amino acid aequence from genetic code
nucleotide;deduce
_______ gene to study function in vitro and in vivo and _______ and _______ are uses of a cloned gene
Manipulate;Commercial;Medical
A ___ ______ is a collection of DNA fragments representing all of the DNA from an organism
DNA Library
The _____ ______ has _____ clones,each containing fragment of genome
Genomic Library;multiple
The Genomic Library collectivly represents all ____ of an organism
DNA
______ _______ are constructed from a single chromosone and are size selected
Partial Libraries
_____ is derived by reverse transcription from RNA
cDNA
Most genetic engineering experiments are derived from 4 stages.What are they??
DNA Cleavage,Recombinant DNA,Cloning and Screening
What does PCR stand for?
Polymerase Chain Reaction
The ______ ______ _____ amplifies target DNA w/o cloning.
The target amount can be a _____ molecule.
And the amplified DNA can be ______ _______,etc.
Polymerase Chain Reaction;single;sequenced;cloned
____ allows the investigation of minute samples of DNA
PCR
____ _______ is another form of molecular biology and it is the determination of nucleotide sequence of cloned,PCR amplified DNA
_____ method most common,automated
DNA Sequencing;Sanger
_____ _______ is another procedure of molecular biology.
It uses ______ _______.
RNA----cDNA
Reverse Transcription;Reverse Transciptase enzyme
The typlical machine for automated sequencing has a __ hr sequencing run,it produces ___-___ bases per sample and can create ______ samples at a time
2;600-1000;multiple
The Autmated Sequencing Machine can create up to _____ bases per day(12hr)
500,000
In Automated Sequencing the data is processed by a _______
Computer
Name 3 kinds of blotting and what are their targets
Southern Blotting:DNA
Northern Blotting:RNA
Western Blotting:Protein
What does RFLP stand for?
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
The Mutation caused by RFLP,_____ and _____restriction targets which results in different ______ of DNA fragments
Creates;Destroys;lengths
_____ is basis for DNA Fingerprinting and has many uses including in ______ and _________
RFLP;Evolution;Ecology
______ _______ are invaluble for study of gene function
Transgenic Organisms
There are transgenic _____ and ________
mice;Arabidopsis
Transgenic prganisms take advantage of homologous recombination to introduce ____
genes
Transgenic _____ are a useful tool to study gene expression,development,disease models,etc
mice
(Genomics)Sequencing and analysis of genomes includes all of the ______ material of an organism and this can happen in the _____,_____,and _______
genetic;nucleus,mitochodria and chloroplast
_________ is the extraction of info from genomic sequence.
It uses _______ methods to predict functions
Bioinformatics;statistical
______ _______ is the determining function of genomic components by ezperimental analysis
Functional Genomics
Name 4 maps..
These maps provide landmarks for ______ and _______
Genetic Maps,Restriction Maps,STS Maps and EST Maps;
Assembly;Analysis
Name 2 wariations
Clone by Clone based on maps and Whole Genome Shotgun
Name 3 Completed Genomes
The Human Genome,The Sequenced Genome and The Chix Genome
More than _____ genomes sequenced
Name 6
240
Putter Fish,Zebra Fish,Green Onion,Rice,Cow,Dog
Functional Genomics is the ________ function of nucleotide sequences of genomes
Determining
Functional Genomics has _____ methods
multiple
One way to control gene expression is to regulate the _______ of Transcription
intiation
In Prokaryotes,the primary function of gene control is to adjust the cell's _______ to it's _______ enviroment
activities;immediate
In Eukaryotes,there is ______ processing
extensive
Promoters have elements of __-__ base pairs and the edges are exposed in _______
6-20;grooves
______ bind Transcription factors
Promoters
DNA does not have to ______ during binding of transcription factors
unwind
Transcription factors recruit ____ _________
RNA Polymerase
______ ______ recognize target thru edges of base pairs
Transcription Factors
Identification of promoters can include ________,_______ ______ and various ______ ________
Bioinformatics,Functional Genomics and Molecular Assays