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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The class of RNA found in ribosomes are called _______ ___ or _____ for short
Ribosomal RNA;rRNA
During polypeptide synthesis ____ provides the site where polypeptides are ________
rRNA;assembled
3 Major classes of RNA are...
rRNA,tRNA,and mRNA
______ ___ molecules transport the _____ _____ to the ribosome and _____ each amino acid in the correct place on the elongating polypeptide chain
Transfer RNA;amino acids;position
Human Chromosones contain about ___ different kinds of tRNA molecules
45
_______ ____ molecules are long strands of RNA that are _______ from DNA and travel to the _______ to direct precisly which amino acids are assembled into polypeptides
Messenger RNA;transcribed;ribosomes
_____ _____:Info passes from the genes to an RNA copy of the gene and the RNA copy directs the essential assembly of a chain of amino acids
Central Dogma
The first step to the central dogma is the ______ of info from ____ to ___,which occurs when an _____ copy of the gene is produced
This stage is called ________
transfer;DNA to RNA;mRNA
Transcription
Transcription is initiated when the enzyme ____ _______ binds to a _______ binding site located at the beginning of the gene
RNA Polymerase;Promoter
Transcription happens in the ______ of eukaryotes
Nucleus
For Polypeptide: ____ to ____ to ________
DNA;mRNA;Polypeptide
The second step of the Central Dogma is ________.
Translation
Translation is called such bcuz the nucleotide sequence of the _____ transcript is ________ into an amino acid sequence in the polypeptide
mRNA;translated
Translation:_____ to ________
mRNA to Polypeptide
Biologists refer to the 2 steps in the central dogma as _____ ______
gene expression
Translation, utilizes ____ and the ____ _____
tRNA;Genetic code
Ribosomes containig _____ and ____ are found in Translation
They catalyze formation of _______ bond
protein;rRNA;peptide
In transcription, an RNA Polymerase enzyme synthesizes ___ ______, a copy of 1 strand of DNA of gene
RNA transcript
______ are a series of blocks of info
Codons
The genetic code is read in increments consisting of __ nucleotides,AKA ____ _____,and that reading occurs _______ w/o punctuation b/w the 3 nucleotide units
3;Triplet Code;continuously
The genetic code is not quite ________
Universal
Only 1 of the 2 strands of DNA,called the _______ strand is transcribed
(Transcription in Prokaryotes)
template
The strand of DNA that is not transcribed is called the ______ strand
(Transcription in Prokaryotes)
Coding
The coding strand has the the same sequence as the RNA transcript except _ takes the place of _
(Transcription in Prokaryotes)
T;U
Transcription in Prokaryotes is synthesized ______ and relativly ________
rapidly;accuratly
In Prokaryotes,no ______ is neede
primer
In Prokaryotes,Transcription starts at a ________ site
Promoter
________ is a sequence of nucleotides which tells RNA Polymerase which DNA strand to use
Promoter
Prokaryote promoters contain ____nt which is a sequence called the ______ box
They also contain a ___nt.(upstream) sequence where transcription actually starts
-10;TATA;-35
Promoters may be ______ or ______
strong;weak
In eukaryotes,acess to promoter depends upon state of ______ ______.
chromatin coiling
Promoters in eukaryotes contain a ___sequence referred to as the ______ box and additional nucleotide signals ________
-25;TATAAA;upstream
Promoters and their genes may be on either ____ strand. Rarely are both strands ________ at once
DNA;transcribed
In prokaryotes, the region containing the RNA Polymerase,DNA and growing RNA transcript is called the ______ ______ bcuz it contains an unwound bubble of ___
Transcription Bubble;DNA
The RNA-DNA rotates each time a ________ is added so that the 3'end of the RNA stays at the _______ ____
nucleotide;catalytic site
The simplest stop signal is a series og _-_ base pairs followed by a series of _-_ base pairs
G-C;A-T
The pairing of __ with DNA's __ is the weakest of the 4 hybrid base pairs and is not strong enough to hold the hybrid strands together during the long pause...which causes _______
U;A;Termination
Name 3 eukaryotic promoters
RNA Polymerase 1,2 and 3
The ____ box is a second core promoter foun in most genes
CAAT
In eukaryotes, the initiation of transcription occurs at RNA polymerase __ promoters
2
Unusual 5' to 5' linkage is found only in the __ ___
5' cap
A major difference between transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that in eukaryotes, the end of the transcript is not the end of the _____
mRNA
In eukaryotes,new nucleotides are added to the __ end
3'
In eukaryotes,the RNA Polymerase synthesizes single stranded RNA ______ to ______ strand of DNA
complentry;template
In eukaryotes,transcription begins at a ______ site and ends at a ______ site
promoter;terminator
In transcription of eukaryotes no _____ is needed
primer
There is much ________ modification in eukaryotes
posttranscriptional
Transcription in eukaryotes differs from that in prokaryotes in that there are __ RNA Ploymerase enzymes,an ______ complex forms at the promoter, and the RNAs are modified _____ transcription
3;initiation;after
Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized as ___-____ and processed in the nucleus
pre-mRNA
(Eukaryotic mRNA)
At the 5'end,___ cap is placed at inverted position.This is essential for ______ recognitionn
GTP;Ribosome
(Eukaryotic mRNA)
The poly-A tail is located at the __ end
3'
(Eukaryotic mRNA)
The ____-__ ____ plays a role in the ______ of mRNAs by protecting them form degradation
poly-A tail;stability
A nontemplated addition of ~50-250 A nucleotides happens in the __ end by the ___-__ _______
3';poly-A polymerase
(Eukaryotic mRNA)
_____ are the intervwning sequences that are removed
Introns
Translation in prokaryotes tkaes place on _______ ____
growing mRNA
Translation in eukaryotes tkaes place in _______ on free ribosomes and ___
cytoplasm;RER
Translation requires what 4 things?
mRNA,tRNA,ribsomes(rNA,proteins),and translation factors(various proteins)
In the genetic code, the start codon is ____ and the stop codn is ____
(Translation)
AUG;ORF(open reading frame)
Experiments show that _____ is translated __ nucleotides at a time.
Start:___
Stop:____,____,____
ORF:Open Reading Frame b/w _____ and _____
mRNA;3;AUG;UGA,UAA,UAG;start and stop
Translation occurs __ nucleotides at a time and each 3 nucleotides is a _____
3;codon
Nonsense codons are recognized by _______ _______
release factors
tRNA has ____ _____
______ bonds with codon
anti codon;hydrogen
_____ catalyzes joing of amino acids
rRNA
The genetic code has ___ triplet codons
64
The genetic code was eperimentally deciphered in ____(Nobel Prizes)
1961
)Genetic Code)
Nearly _________ codons used in all living things
identical
The ______ ____ is still evolving
Genetic Code
Translation proceeds from _____ codon,translating each successive codon until the _____ signal is reached
start;stop
The tRNA transfers ____
RNA
2 important parts of the tRNA are the ____-______ and the __ end
anti-codon;3'
The 3' end of tRNA contains ________-____ _______ and it also accepts the ______ ____
aminoaceyl-tRNA synthetase;amino acid
Name 4 players of elongation in Translation
Ribsome,mRNA,tRNAs and elongation factors
______ _____ assist in binding a tRNA molecule with the appropriate anticodon to the exposed _____ codon at the A site
Elongation Factors;mRNA
In prokaryotes, polypeptide synthesis begins with the formation of an ______ _____
Initiation Complex
Proteins called ______ _____ position the _____ on the ribosomal surface at the P site ,where peptide bonds will form
initiation factors;tRNA^fmet
Proper positioning of the _____ is critical bcuz it determines the reading frame---which group of 3 nucleotides will be read as codons
mRNA
In a process called ______ the ribosome now moves 3 more nucleotides along the mRNA molecule in the 5' to 3' direction,guidded by other elongation factors
Translocation
Incoming _____ enters the A site
_____ catalyzes peptide bond formation
Empty tRNA ______ via E site;recycled
A site ready for next charged _____
All steps in Elongation,Translocation
tRNA;rRNA;leaves;tRNA
Termination in Translation is the _______ of ribosome at stop codon allows _____ _____ to bind,releasing polypeptide and dissassociating ribsome subunits from ____
pausing;release factor;mRNA
Eukayotic Genomes are ______ that prokayotic genomes
larger
Eukaryotic genomes are contained in _______(mitochondria,Cloroplast)
Nucleaus
In eukaryotic genomes there is considerable ____ processing after _______
RNA;Transcription
Eukaryotic genes may be interrupted by 1 or more _______
Introns
In eukaryotic genes, _____ is transcribed and then removed by _______
intron;splicesome
In eukaryotes,coding rgions of gene may be interrupted by ______,noncoding regions of ___(RNA)
introns;DNA
_____:Often codes for functional domain of protein
Exon
The basic structure of eukaryotic genes is radically _______ from that of prokaryotic genes
different
The _______ is responsible for the splicing or remocal of the introns
Splicesome
Most eukaryotic genes _____ introns and prokaryotic genes _____ introns
posses;lack
Individual prokaryotic mRNA molecules often contain transcripts of ______ genes and Eukaryotic mRNA molecules rarely contain transcripts of more than __ gene
several;1
Eukaryotes mRNA molecules must be completely ______ and pass across the nuclear membrane before they are ________.
Prokaryotes often begin ________ of an mRNA molecule before its _______ is complete
formed;translated;translation;transcription
In prokaryotes translation begins at an ___ codon preceeded by a special _______ sequence
AUG;Nucleotide
Eukaryotic mRNA molecules are _______ before they are translated
modified
Ribosomes in ______ are a little larger than those of _________
Eukaryotes;Prokaryotes
______ are not essential to genes
Introns
Introns may constitute more than ___% of gene
90
Introns/Exons are removed from ___-____ to form _____
pre-mRNA;mRNA
________ does occur in prokaryotes but ordinarily they arenot processed
Modification
Promoter sequences tend to occupy ___ to ____ nucleotides
20 to 100
_______ refers to the affinity of transcripton factors
Weakness
State of _______ plays a major role in Eukaryotes(S Phase)
Chromatin
Are all genes transcribed from some strand of DNA?
NO
Single strand produced in ____
RNA
Every tRNA has a _______ enzyme that _______ the correct enzyme to it
Companion;attatches
The _____ ______ _____ gives info to make polypeptide
Open Reading Frame
In Prokaryotes,message is ________ as soon as it is a long chain
translated
Every tRNA has a _______ ______ that attatches the correct enzyme to it
Companion Enzyme
During Translation,Ribosomes scan in groups of __,starting with ____
3;AUG
During,Translation,a sequence has an ______ end and a ________ end.
The _______ end is the growing end
Amino;Carboxyl;Carboxyl
Some enzymes ________ Methionine
remove
tRNA contains a _____ _____ and a amino acid
anit codon
There is about ____ nucleotides in RNA
70
All tRNA have the _____ shape But they slighly vary. This slight variation is what allows ___________
same;attatchment
There are ___ sites for the tRNA
3
The 3 sites for tRNA are ...
E,P and A
Site E for tRNA is the ____ site,where RNA catalyzes _______ ____ formation
exit;peptide bond
The A site for tRNA is the ________ site
It accepts only certain ______ that will fit,does not accept just any one
acceptor;tRNA
The P site for tRNA ______ tRNA with growing polypeptide
connects
There is ___ and _____ in the splicesome
RNA;Protein
_____ are sequences that end up in the final message
Exons
Introns are ___ essential to genes
In some cases,___%of gene is introns
not;90
If Introns are not ________ removed it will alter the reading frame
precisley
All introns begin with ___ and end with ____
GU;AG