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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Physiology
the science of how organisms work
homeostasis
the maintance of constant condtitons in the internal environment
cells
basic building blocks of multicellular animals
tissues
formed by cells with the same characteristics or specilizations that group together
organs
usually made up of several different tissue types a discrtete structure that carries out a specific function in the body
organ systems
a group of organs that function together
positive feedback
amplifies a response
negative feedback
stop or reverses what is happening
feed forward
changes a set point
set point
desired level to be maintained
effectors
cause a change to take place
controlled systems
under control of other systems
regulatory systetms
direct actions
Q10
temperature rate sensitivity
2 and 3
major organisms Q10
metabolic rate
the sum total of energy turnover of its cells, often measured by O2 consumption
homeotherm
an animal that tmaintains a constant body temperature over a wide range of environemental temperatures
poikilotherm
an animal whose body tempersture changes when the temperature of its environment changes
heterotherm
an animal that maintais a constant body temperture some of the time
ectotherm
depends largerly on external sources of heat, such as solar radiation, to maintain their body temperature above the environement temperature
endotherms
can regulte their body temperaure by producing heat metabolically or by mobilizing active mechanisms or heat loss
counter current heat exchange
heat is exchanged betwee blood vessels carrying blood in opposite directions
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the metabolic rate of a resting animal of a temperature within thte thermoneutral zone
thermoneutral zone
the range of temperature our which in endotherm does not have to expand extra energy to thermoregulate. metabolic rate is low and independent of temperature.
vertebrate thermostat
located in hypothalamus, uses feedback
pryogens
chemicals that traise the hypothtalamus
hypothermia
a condtion in which body temperature drops below normal
hibernation
regulated hypothermia
lasts for weeks, days, months
reduces metabolic rate greatly
osmolarity
the solute concentration of a fluid
osmoconformers
equilibriate with environment
osmoregulators
regulate internal environment
ammonotelic
excrete ammonia
ureotelic
urea
liquid
uricotelic
uric acid
semisolid
protoneohridia
flatworm
metanephridia
processs coelomic fluid in annelids
malpighian ttubules
insects