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138 Cards in this Set

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What are the four principle parts of the brain?
Cerebellum, brainstem, diencephalon, and cerebrum.
What are the three principle parts of the brain's support system?
Meninges, cerbrospinal fluid, and blood supply.
How many bones makes up the skull?
Eight.
What covers the fontanels?
A fibrous membrane or cartilage.
What is the Pia Mater
A thin delicate membrane attached to the brain.
What is the Arachnoid?
A covering which lies directly under the dura mater with web-like extensions that attach to the pia mater.
What is in the space between the arachnoid and pia mater?
The extensions are found here and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
What is Dura Mater?
A thick, durable membrane attached to the skull.
What is the purpose of Cerebrospinal Fluid?
Nourishes, removes waste and protects the brain against chemical or physical injury.
Where do you find cerebrospinal fluid?
Flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord, and through the ventricles in the brain.
What forms the cerebrospinal fluid?
The choroid plexuses in the ventricles and by the cellular lining of subarachnoid space.
What happens to old cerebrospinal fluid?
It is reabsorbed into the veins within the meninges and replaced by newly formed fluid.
What is the result of Hydrocephalus in infants?
It eventually separates the unfused cranial bones and enlarges the head.
What is the result of Hydrocephalus in adults?
It puts pressure on the brain resulting in convulsion and ultimately death if not treated.
What are the four ventricles of the brain?
There are two lateral, one third, and one fourth.
What is found in the ventricles?
They contain cerebrospinal fluid and the choroid plexuses that form CSF.
What are the four major arteries of the brain?
Two vertebral arteries and two internal carotid arteries.
What is a Cerebral vascular accident?
Disrupted blood flow to part of the brain causing neurons to die.
What are the impairments of a cerebral vascular accident?
aphasia, motor loss, sensation loss, and peronality changes.
What makes up the brainstem?
Medulla Oblongata, Pons, and midbrain.
Where is the medulla oblongata located?
inferior to the pons, superior to the spinal cord.
What are the functions of the medulla oblongata?
Relays impulses between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Regulates heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, hiccupping and laughing.
What is contained in the medulla oblongata?
Contains the nuclei of the cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII
Where is the Pons located?
inferior to the midbrain, the anterior to the cerebellum, and superior to the medulla oblongata.
What are the functions of the Pons?
Relays impulses from the medulla oblongata to the midbrain, all impulses to and from the cerebellum, and impulses from the left hemisphere of the cerebellum to the right hemisphere of the cerebellum. Aids the medulla oblongata in controlling respiration.
What is contained in the Pons?
Contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V, VI, VII
What are the functions of the midbrain?
Relays impulses from the cerebrum to the brainstem and the brainstem to the thalamus. Relays impulses between the cerebellum, basal ganglia, cerebrum and spinal cord to coordinate muscle movements. Coordinates eye movement and visual-auditory reflexes.
Where is the midbrain located?
Inferior to the hypothalamus.
What is contained in the midbrain?
Contains the nuclei of the cranial nerves III and IV.
Where is the Cerebellum located?
Posterior to the pons, inferior to the cerebrum.
What is the cerebellum composed of?
Composed of two symmetrical lobes, with a cortex composed of gray matter and the internal regions composed of white matter.
What is the function of the cerebellum?
Subconsious control center for coordination of somatic movements, equilibrium and muscle tone for posture.
Asynergia
Loss of coordination
Adiadochokinesia
Inability to perform rapidly alternating movement.
Nystagmus
A rapid involuntary movement of the eyeball.
What is the cause of Asynergia?
Lesions of the cerebellum
What is the cause of Adiadochokinesia?
Lesions of the cerebellum
What is the cause of intentional tremor?
Lesions of the cerebellum
What is the cause of hypotonia or hypertonia?
Lesions of the cerebellum.
What is the cause of nystagmus?
Lesions of the cerebellum.
What side is nystagmus on due to a lesion of the cerebellum?
Ipsilateral side.
What is the cause of gait impairments?
Lesions of the cerebellum.
What are the parts of the Diencephalon?
The thalamus and the hypothalamus.
Where is the thalamus located?
Located medial to the internal capsule, directly inferior to the cerebrum.
What does the thalamus look like?
Paired structures shaped like eggs.
What is the relay and integrative center for all sensory impulses on the way to the brain?
The thalamus.
Where is the hypothalamus located?
Inferior to the thalamus.
What controls and maintains a balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system?
The hypothalamus
What is the major integration center between the nervous system and the endorcine system?
The hypothalamus
What controls body temperature?
The hypothalamus.
What controls sleep?
the hypothalamus.
What controls hunger?
The hypothalamus.
What controls blood pressure?
The hypothalamus.
What controls sexual rhythms?
The hypothalamus.
What controls emotions (anger//placidity)?
The hypothalamus.
Where does the conscious recognition of pain and temperature occur?
The thalamus.
Where does the general awareness of pain and pressure occur?
The thalamus.
How do teenagers compare to adults in reference to the hypothalamus?
Teenagers are shown to have increased hypothalamic activity in comparison to adults.
Where is the cerebrum located?
Superior aspect of the brain.
What does the cerebral cortex contain?
Billions of cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals.
What is found in the ventricles?
They contain cerebrospinal fluid and the choroid plexuses that form CSF.
What are the four major arteries of the brain?
Two vertebral arteries and two internal carotid arteries.
What is a Cerebral vascular accident?
Disrupted blood flow to part of the brain causing neurons to die.
What are the impairments of a cerebral vascular accident?
aphasia, motor loss, sensation loss, and peronality changes.
What makes up the brainstem?
Medulla Oblongata, Pons, and midbrain.
Where is the medulla oblongata located?
inferior to the pons, superior to the spinal cord.
What are the functions of the medulla oblongata?
Relays impulses between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Regulates heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, hiccupping and laughing.
What is contained in the medulla oblongata?
Contains the nuclei of the cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII
Where is the Pons located?
inferior to the midbrain, the anterior to the cerebellum, and superior to the medulla oblongata.
What are the functions of the Pons?
Relays impulses from the medulla oblongata to the midbrain, all impulses to and from the cerebellum, and impulses from the left hemisphere of the cerebellum to the right hemisphere of the cerebellum. Aids the medulla oblongata in controlling respiration.
What is contained in the Pons?
Contains the nuclei for cranial nerves V, VI, VII
What are the functions of the midbrain?
Relays impulses from the cerebrum to the brainstem and the brainstem to the thalamus. Relays impulses between the cerebellum, basal ganglia, cerebrum and spinal cord to coordinate muscle movements. Coordinates eye movement and visual-auditory reflexes.
Where is the midbrain located?
Inferior to the hypothalamus.
What is contained in the midbrain?
Contains the nuclei of the cranial nerves III and IV.
Where is the Cerebellum located?
Posterior to the pons, inferior to the cerebrum.
What is the relay and integrative center for all sensory impulses on the way to the brain?
The thalamus.
Where is the hypothalamus located?
Inferior to the thalamus.
What controls and maintains a balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system?
The hypothalamus
What is the major integration center between the nervous system and the endorcine system?
The hypothalamus
What controls body temperature?
The hypothalamus.
What controls sleep?
the hypothalamus.
What controls hunger?
The hypothalamus.
What controls blood pressure?
The hypothalamus.
What controls sexual rhythms?
The hypothalamus.
What controls emotions (anger//placidity)?
The hypothalamus.
Where does the conscious recognition of pain and temperature occur?
The thalamus.
Where does the general awareness of pain and pressure occur?
The thalamus.
How do teenagers compare to adults in reference to the hypothalamus?
Teenagers are shown to have increased hypothalamic activity in comparison to adults.
Where is the cerebrum located?
Superior aspect of the brain.
What does the cerebral cortex contain?
Billions of cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals.
Where is the corpus callosum located?
Deep within the cerebrum.
What is the function of the corpus callosum?
Large bundle of myelinated commissural neurons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Where is the internal capsule located?
Deep within the cerebrum, between the basal ganglia and the thalamus.
What is the function of the internal capsule?
Myelinated axons connecting the cerebrum with the rest of the brain.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of linear thinking?
Left hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of analytical thinking?
Left hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of logical thinking?
Left hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of abstract symbols of language and number?
Left hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of speech?
Left hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of reading and writing?
Left hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of synthetic thinking?
Right hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of holistic thinking?
Right hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of generating mental images?
Right hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of space perception?
Right hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of perception of music, singing?
Right hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of artistic ability and creativity?
Right hemisphere.
Which cerebral hemisphere is in charge of emotions?
Right hemisphere.
Where is the frontal lobe located?
Anterior to the central sulcus.
What area initiates voluntary (somatic) movements on the contralateral (opposite) side of the body?
The frontal lobe.
Where is the precentral gyrus located?
The gyrus immediately anterior to the central sulcus.
What is the primary area for motor control?
The precentral gyrus.
Where is the premotor area located?
Anterior to the precentral gyrus.
What controls skilled or learned movements such as writing?
The premotor area.
What is the result of a cerebral vascular accident in the motor areas of the frontal lobe?
Results in motor deficits on the contralateral side of the body.
What area of the brain is pertinent to personality?
Frontal pole, the most anterior region of the frontal lobe.
What area of the brain is pertinent to speech production?
The frontal lobe.
What is Broca's area?
The area of the frontal lobe associated with speech production.
Where is Broca's area located?
Posterior to frontal pole and adjacent to the lateral fissure in the frontal lobe. Usually located on the left hemisphere.
What area of the brain is pertinent to song production?
Frontal lobe, usually on the right hemisphere.
Where is the parietal lobe located?
Posterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral sulcus.
What area of the brain is pertinent to somatic sensory perception?
The parietal lobe.
Where is the postcentral gyrus located?
Immediately posterior to the central sulcus.
What is the function of the postcentral gyrus?
Primary sensory area.
How is the postcentral gyrus arranged?
In a specific pattern, a homunculus.
What is the result of a lesion in the parietal lobe?
Results in sensory impairment on the contralateral side of the body.
What area of the brain is pertinent to written words?
The angular gyrus.
Where is the temporal lobe located?
Inferior to the lateral sulcus.
What area of the brain is pertinent to auditory perception?
The superior part of the temporal lobe.
What area of the brain is pertinent to recognition of speech?
The temporal lobe.
Where is wernicke's area located?
Region anterior and posterior to the auditory region.
What is wernicke's area responsible for?
Recognition of speech, translating words spoken into thoughts.
Where is the occipital lobe located?
Posterior region of the cerebrum.
What area of the brain is pertinent to visual reception and perception?
The occipital lobe.
What area of the brain is pertinent to integrating eye movements to fix the eye on objects?
The occipital lobe.
What are the names of the three Basal Ganglia?
Caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus.
What area of the brain is pertinent to initiation and control of somatic movements?
The basal ganglia.
What are two disorders of the basal ganglia?
Parkinson's disease and huntington disease.
What are the characteristics of parkinson's disease and huntington disease?
Irregular movement control.