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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Independent Variables
1. stimulus 2. organismic 3. comparative 4. developmental
Measurement Definitions
random vs. systematic error
precision vs. accuracy
realiable vs. validity
Psychophysical Methods: Phenomenology
Looking at what is in consciousness, the meaning of our experiences. Naive: lack of experiences, as given Analytical Introspection: elements of sensory experiences and simple feelings through examining our own
Psychophysical Methods: Scaling
Establish order and distance to an attribute. *magnitude estimation *1 & 2 dimensional
Psychophysical Methods: Fechner's "Classical Psychophysics"
From his commitment to panpsychism (consciousness/mind in everything). Relationship between the world and way it is perceived, by studying senses with stimulus.
Psychophysical Methods: Fechner's "Classical Psychophysics"
1. Can you detect? discriminate? identify?
Psychophysical Methods: Fechner's "Classical Psychophysics"
2. Absolute Thresholds: level to detect the stimulus; Differential: difference between 2 stimuli; Terminal: more intense pain/no longer can handle it
Psychophysical Methods: Fechner's "Classical Psychophysics"
3. Inner Psycho-physics: relation between teh brain and the percept (what you perceive and the nervous system)
Outer Psycho-physics: relation between the stimulus (distal and proximal) and percept
Psychophysical Methods: Fechner's "Classical Psychophysics"
4. Threshold Concept (barrier vs. dependent variable). The physical and mental are parallel, barrier=absolute thresholds and dependent variables=relevant quantifiable output of subject. Using light.
Fechner's Three Techniques:
1. Adjustment-stimulus level is under control of the observer, adjusted until the observer thinks the stimulus si detectable (direct) a.k.a. average error
Fechner's Three Techniques:
2. Limits-experimenter presents low levels of stimulus, higher levels above threshold or not, yes/no (less direct & barely perceivable)
Fechner's Three Techniques:
3. Constant Stimuli-experimenter selects the stimulus level for each trial at random, yes/no (less discrete)
Sources of Variability in Psychophysical Measurements
1.stimulus 2.receptor orientation 3.state of nerves 4.subject's attention 5.response error
Contemporary Variants: Spatial and temporal forced-choice MCS
Spatial=nature of space and temoral=time related. A subject is presented with a #of spatial/temporal alternatives in each trial, and is forced to choose a location.
Contemporary Variants: Staircase Versions of ML
1. simple tracking -- used to quickly estimate threshold, but not a lot of info., no finding a slope of function. Stimulus depends on what was said, puts a burden on the subject.
Contemporary Variants: Staircase Versions of ML
2. double random staircase tracking-- a.k.a. discrimination ... point the difference between two stimuli is detectable, whether one is heavier than the other.. AL=absolute threshold, IU=interval of uncertainty, PSE=point of equality, DL=difference threshold between two stimuli, JND= mental difference a subject notices in proportion, CE=constant error PSE-Standard
Signal Detection Theory in Psychophysics
1. developed in the Cold War 2. about unlikely events 3.detect signals in noise 4.assume detection depends on: a. sensitivity (d' prime) measures the separation between the means of the signal and noise distributions in units of the standard deviation of the noise and 2. criterion (beta- willingness to say yes)
******quantify the ability to discern between signal and noise*** SDT- way we make decisions under conditions of uncertainty
Signal Detection Theory in Psychophysics
Resp. Absent/ present
stim. present miss hit
stim. absent corr. rej. false alarm
Signal Detection Theory in Psychophysics
ROC graphy Receiver Operating Characteristic--- results of prediction 100% specificty and sensitivity
Signal Detection Theory in Psychophysics
Current Status of TSD Perception: 1. TSD rarely used in basic research because of experiments are usually the subjects 2. would be valuable w/children, animals 3.TSD when not sure about subject's a)criterion b)understanding c)cooperation 4.too expensive, many observations to make a ROC graph
Perceptual Functions
1.Distinction to PPm to test theories about nervous system activities. 2. 1 hypothesis holds true, indiscriminable stimuli same neural basis like metamers(colors appear to be different) 3. metamers cannot be told apart from neurophysiological states
Perceptual Functions
- type a- threshold experiments
- type b= all other phenomenology and scaling
-type a only allows neural inferences
-type b cna inspire a type a experiment
Greek physician writing in Rome, 4 bodily humors- blood, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm. Ideas in spirits- animal spirit(brain) for movement/perception/senses -vital spirit (heart) blood/body temp. -natural spirit(liver) nutrition/metabolism..Substances act like what we think of as forces used by humans and dumb brutes to initiate and control actions.
before 1650 Albertus Magnus
Before 1650 Leonardo da Vinci
wax cast of ventricles and shape
Before 1650 William Harvey
challenged- circulation, blood flows through the body like tides, pumped from heart. Credited of modern experimental physiology.
Before 1650 Robert Boyle
vacuum chamber/air-pump able to carry out a variety of trials aimed to elucidate the air
Before 1650 Nicolaus Steno
evaluating the brain in smaller parts
Before 1650 Leeuwenhoek
drawing of capillaries
Carry messages from the brain to muscles. Carry messages from sensors back to the brain. Body of salt water, outside is +, charge is lost when the top end of a nerve cell is stimulated = depolarization, down the cell from the brain to the muscle. Nerve swells out to the muscle, relasing a chemical Acety-choline into the gap between the nerve and muscle. Part of the PNS system. Afferent nerves convey sensory signals to the CNS. While efferent nerves conduct stimulatory signals from CNS to muscles and glands. Most nerves connect to CNS through spinal cord.
A polarised membrane like nerves. Special receptors built into this membrane, when attached to acetyl-choline to a receptor=depolarised. Muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and necessary for survival.
Rene Descartes
Natural sciences, methodological skepticism: he doubts that any idea can be doubted. Thought exists, cannot be separated from me, I exsist. Thinking the only thing that cannot be doubted, there are limitations to the senses. Skepticism of the external world.
Giovanni Borelli
Explain the movements of the animal body on mechanical principles (biomechanics). Testing hypotheses against observation and blood. Microscopy to investigate stomatal movements of plants.
Jan Swammerdam
Studied insects and their various phases during life, and different forms of the same animal to muscle contraction, also found red blood cells. He used the microscope in disections and wax injections.