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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the cis most cisternae is positive for ...
osmium reduction
concentration gradient has ... transport (high to low concentration) and ... transport (low to high concentration)
passive
active
For molecules to pass through the membrane, they must either be souluble in the membrane itself (small/large and polar/nonpolar)

or be carried or transported by a ... protein within the membrane
small
nonpolar
membrane transporter
are lipid bilayers permeable to small hydrophilic molecules like glucose and AAs?
no
membrane transporters can become saturated such that a ... (...) is achieved (similar to Vmax in enzyme kinetics)
transport maximum (Tm)
Cellular processes are driven by the energy stored in ...

It is vital for many cell functions
ion gradients
What are the 5 important ions located inside and outside of the cell?
K+
Na+
Ca2+
H+
Cl-
which ion has a greater concentration inside the cell?
K+
Under normal resting conditions, a cell is more ... charged inside the cell than outside
negatively
cellular ion gradients can also be known as ... gradients (because of the charge and ion differences between the inside and outside of the cell)
electrochemical
passive transport processes include ... diffusion, ... diffusion, and ...
simple
facilitated
osmosis
Active transport can be fueled by hydrolysis of ... (primary active transport, pumps) or by utilizing a pre-existing ... gradient (secondary active transport, co-transporters)
ATP
ion
Simple diffusion:
-only very (small/large), (charged/uncharged), and (polar/nonpolar), (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) molecules can simply diffuse through cell membranes.
small
uncharged
nonpolar
hydrophobic
Can these molecules diffuse through cell membranes?

O2, CO2, H2O, ethanol, steroid hormones, lipid-soluble vitamins
Yes
Facilitated diffusion uses ... proteins, which creates a water-filled pore through which ions and other small hydrophilic molecules can pass by diffusion
transmembrane
In facilitated diffusion, channels are regulated or "..." to control the amount of diffusion allowed across the membrane
gated
proteins that function to facilitate the diffusion of molecules across a cell membrane include ..., permeases, and unitransporters.
ion channels
In a ligand-gated ion channel, a small signaling molecule (or ligand) binds to a channel, creating a ... that "opens" the channel
conformational change
Some extracellular ligands are ..., which opens Na+ channels in neurons to initiate a nerve impulse, and ..., which opens Cl- channels to inhibit creation of a nerve impulse
Acetylcholine (ACh)
GABA
some intracellular ligands:
- ...(olfaction, ...(vision)
-... opens Cl- and HCO3- channels
cAMP
cGMP
ATP
In mechanically-gated channels, a physical ... or ... of the channel results in the opening of the channel itself
distortion
disruption
... cells in the cochlea are mechanically-gated
-stereocilia distorted or bent by sound waves
-opens Na+ channels to create nerve impulse that brain interprets as sound
hair cells
... receptors in tendons and muscles is mechanically-gated
-mechanical deformation opens ion channels creating a nerve impulse
stretch
what type of ion channel is this?
-open in response to local changes in charge across the plasma membrane
-mostly found in "excitable cells" --> neurons, muscle cells
-nerve impulse conduction along an axon
voltage-gated ion channels
Uniporters are membrane transport proteins that mediate the diffusion of small polar molecules like ... and various ...
glucose
amino acids
In diabetes, what becomes saturated?
glucose transporter
At very high glucose concentrations (...), the glucose transporter becomes saturated, --> excess glucose in blood --> tissue damage
hyperglycemia
when there is presence of glucose in urine, it's called ...
glycosuria
what kind of transport uses ATP to drive molecules against their concentration gradients?
primary active transport
If the energy is in the form of ATP, the transporter is called a pump, or an ...
ATPase
If the energy needed to drive the reaction comes from an existing concentration gradient (usually Na+), the transporter is called a ... or ..., depending on the direction of transport
symporter
antiporter
what are these examples of?
-Na+/K+ ATPase
-H+/K+ ATPase
-Ca2+ ATPase
-ABC Transporters (ATP-binding cassette)
primary active transporters
which primary active transporter is this?
-found in almost every cell
-uses 1/3rd of the cell's supply of ATP
-ions are moved against their conc. gradient
-pumps #... ions out of the cell for each #... ions into the cell
Na+/K+ ATPase
3 Na+ out
2 K+ in
Na+/K+ ATPase is so important because
-creates ...
helps to maintain ... in the cell
-gradient of Na+ ions harnessed to provide energy to drive ...
resting membrane potential
osmotic balance
secondary active transporters
what kind of active transport is this?
-uses the downhill flow of one ion to pump some other molecule or ion against its concentration gradient
-driving ion is usually Na+ (thanks to Na+/K+ ATPase!!)
coupled transport or secondary active transport
what kind of seconary active transport pump is this?
-Na+ and coupled molecule pumped into the cell together
-same direction

-examples: Na+/glucose transporter, amino acids
symport
Na+/glucose symporter is what kind of transport?
secondary active transport
Na+/K+ ATPase is what kind of transporter?
primary active transport
Glucose uniporter uses what type of transport?
facilitated diffusion
TRP channel stands for ...

-Na+ and Ca2+ channels responsible for ...

-they detect temperature and presence of chemicals that give that temperature sensation
transient receptor potential

thermosensation
... is a special term used to describe the diffusion of water through a cell membrane
osmosis
osmosis includes both ... diffusion directly through the membrane or ... diffusion through water channels called ...
simple
facilitated
aquaporins
what type of solution does this describe?
-concentration of water is greater outside the cell due to lower solute concentration
hypotonic solution
what type of solution?
-concentration of water is lower outside the cell due to higher solute concentration
hypertonic solution
what type of solution?
-concentration of water and total solute are equal inside and outside the cell
isotonic solution
In the body, physiologic saline is ...%NaCl
0.9%
In what type of solution do you get crenation? (cell shrinks and shrivels)
hypertonic solution
in what type of solution do you get hemolysis? (Cell swells and bursts)
hypotonic solution
what are these?
-increase cell's permeability to water
-water channels not gated, constitutively open (but can be inserted or removed from the membrane to change permeabilty of water)
aquaporins
There are # different aquaporin isoforms expressed by different cells in the body
12
what type of inherited ion channel disease?
-cystic fibrosis
-inherited risk for kidney stones
chloride channel diseases
what type of inherited ion channel disease?
-seizures in newborns
-inherited deafness
-inherited defects in cardiac conductance
potassium channel diseases
what type of inherited ion channel disease?
-inherited tendency for certain type of muscle spasms
-Liddle's Syndrome (elevated osmotic pressure in blood with resulting hypertension)
sodium channel diseases
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive mutatio nin the CFTR gene (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)

-results in defective ... transport, as well as impaired Na+ and water movement across epithelial cells
Cl-
-CFTR found in ... (lumenal side) membranes of secretory epithelial cells
-mutation causes abnormal ... and ... accumulation
-results in increased salt content in sweat (diagnostic "sweat test" for CF) and abnormally thick ... in the respiratory and digestive tracks
apical
Cl- and Na+
mucus
CF epidemiology
-CF is the most common lethal inherited disease of ... (1-2500)
-average life expectancy is 37 years
-... disease is responsible for 95% of mortality
-incidence of heterozygous carriers: 1 in #
caucasians
lung
25
Symptoms of CF
-obstruction of airways by thick ... --> respiratory problems
-blockage of pancreatic ducts --> insufficient pancreatic enzyme production in the ... --> abnormally thick feces
-... and poor weight gain in children
-salty ...
-infertility
mucus
small intestines
malnutrition
sweat
Treatments of CF
-... to promote bronchial drainage of thick mucus
-aerosolized medications to loosen...
-medications to open ...
-... for respiratory infections
-...enzyme replacement
-high calorie diet, vitamin supplements
-transplantation
-gene therapy
physical therapy
mucus
airways
antibiotics
pancreatic
..., due to inadequate circulation of oxygen to the fingers, is common in CF patients
clubbing of fingers