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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
endosomes are found in the ...
cytoplasm
What are the 3 major forms of endocytosis?
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis
receptor mediated endocytosis includes what 2 forms?
clathrin-mediated
caveolar-mediated
which type of endocytosis takes in
-nonspecific dissolved solutes
-water
pinocytosis
which type of endocytosis takes in
-large particles
-cells
-cell debris
-particulate matter
phagocytosis
which type of endocytosis takes in specific molecules and ligands?
receptor mediated endocytosis
phagocytosis is only performed by what 3 specific cell types?
macrophages
neutrophils
dendritic cells
the plasma membrane in phagocytosis evaginates and forms ... (false feet)
pseudopods
phagocytosis involves a reorganization of ... and ... cytoskeletal components and is a specific and regulated process.
actin
myosis
phagocytosis of a bacterium by a macrophage:
-attachment and activation of ...
-... rearrangement and engulfment
-formation of ...
-...
surface receptors
actin
phagolysosome
degredation
what does "little sacs of hydrolytic enzymes" describe?
lysosome
lysosomes contain # hydrolytic enzymes (lipases, proteases, nucleases, acid hydrolases, carbohydrases)
40
the hydrolytic enzymes are only fully active in the acidic pH of the lysosome (~pH ...)
-it is the protective mechanism because you don't want them to become active too early
4.8
lysosomal enzymes synthesized in the RER specifically targeted to lysosomes with ... tag
mannose-6-phosphate
which type of lysosomal storage disease is this?
-genetic defect in MCP phosphotransferase (enzyme that adds the tag)
-lysosomal enzymes never reach lysosome
I-cell Disease (I=inclusion)
which category of lysosomal storage disease is this?
-lysosomes are missing a specific enzyme necessary for degredation of a specific ...
-accumulation of lipid in lysosomes
-defects in metabolism of sphingolipids
-sphingolipid
which disease is this?
-affects every organ system since lysosomes are defected
-clinical manifestations often present at birth
-developmental delay, growth failure
-inguinal or umbilical hernias
-skeletal abnormalities
-restricted joint movement
-course facial features
-recurrent respiratory tract infections
-congestive heart failure
I-cell disease
what are 4 major target systems of lysosomal storage diseases?
nervous system
liver
spleen
bone marrow
glucocerebrosidase is the corresponding enzyme deficiency for which lipid storage disease?
-most common
Gaucher Disease
what are these?
-Gaucher Disease
-Niemann-Pick (A/B)
-Fabry Disease
-Farber's Disease
-Tay-Sachs Disease and Sandhoff Disease
-Krabbe's Disease
Wolman's Disease
Lipid storage diseases
Which type of endocytosis is not a regulated process?
pinocytosis
-Pinocytosis is sometimes synonymous with ...
-concerned with nonspecific uptake of ... and ... molecules
-occurs in almost all cells and occurs ...
-evagination of membrane (creation of pseudopods)
-endocytosis
-solutes and single
-continuously
describe Receptor-mediated endocytosis:
-... uptake of specific macromolecules
-molecules must first bind to a specific ... to be internalized by the cell
-involves ... of plasma membrane (called ...) and pinching off to form vesicles
-2 main types: ...-mediated and ...-mediated/...-independent
-selective
-cell surface receptor
-invagination
-pits
-clathrin-mediated
-caveolin-mediated
-clathrin-independent
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis:
-has receptors located in specialized regions of the plasma membrane called ... --> receptors clustered together
-cytoplasmic tail of receptor linked to clathrin by an ...
-Ligand binding to receptor causes assembly of clathrin cage and inward budding of a ...
-clathrin-coated pits
-adaptin protein (AP-2)
-clathrin-coated vesicle
what are the 3 key players in clathrin-coated vesicle formation?
clathrin
adaptin (AP2)
dynamin
what recruits more clathrin and adaptins?
clathrin
what pinches off the clathrin-coated vesicle?
dynamin
what connects the clathrin to the receptor?
adaptin
what are these?
-form when the clathrin cage surrounding endocytic vesicles disassembles, allowing for fusion of several vesicles together.
-have an internal pH of about 6, which is maintained by a specific proton pump in the membrane
-serve as a "sorting compartment"
early endosomes
How do early endosomes serve as a "sorting compartment"
-Due to pH, ligand ... from receptor
-receptor or ligand may be ... to cell surface or ... in lysosome
dissociates
recycled
degraded
Early endosomes then become ... as the pH continues to drop between 5-6.
-... begins
-whorls or small vesicles may form within this, forming a ... body.
-eventually fuses with preexisting...
late endosomes
degredation
mutivesicular
lysosome
LDL enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis (...-dependent)
-... on surface of LDL particles serves as ligand
-early endosomes ... LDL receptor
-late endosome/lysosome is site of accumulation of free ...
clathrin
apoB-100
recycle
cholesterol
Familial hypercholesterolemia
-genetic defect in either ... (multiple mutations) or ... (1 mutation)
-results in elevated serum cholesterol due to the inability of cells to uptake ...
-overall result is ...
-LDL receptor
-apoB ligand
-LDL
-premature cardiovascular disease
Niemann Pick Disease Type C
-mutation lies in the ... protein, which is involved in transport of cholesterol from late endosomes to the golgi and plasma membrane
-cholesterol accumulates in late endosomes forming distinct ...
-creates "..." cells
NPC1
whorls
foamy
caveolae-mediated endocytosis
-involves ... protein and ...
-form ...-shaped pits
-responsible for selective uptake of molecules as small as folate to full size proteins such as albumin
-also responsible for ...(taken in one side of cell and secreated at other side)
caveolin-1
lipid rafts
flask
transcytosis
in addition to endocytosis, caveolae and caveolin proteins function in
-uptake of ... and ...
-... homeostasis
-... ("signalosomes")
-Tumorigenesis/...
viruses and bacteria
cholesterol
signal transduction
tumor suppressor
what is endocytosis of a molecule on one side of the cell followed by exocytosis of the molecule on the opposite side of the cell called?
transcytosis
Caveloae may function in ... by acting as a "relay station" to deliver membrane cholesterol to the plasma membrane or to cholesterol-transporters like HDL.
cholesterol homeostasis
what are these?
-viruses and toxins have several means to gain entry into cells
-examples: adenovirus, Rous Sarcoma virus, cholera toxin, pseudomonas toxin, and diptheria toxin
opportunistic endocytic ligands