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183 Cards in this Set

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What is Population Genetics?
The study of change in allele frequency in a population through time
Allele freq. and gentotype freq. will remain constant if...
1. No natural selection
2. No mutation
3. Random mating
4. No differential migration (no gene flow)
5. Large population (no genetic drift or random genetic drift)
Three things dealing with population size
1. Founder effect
2. Bottleneck effect
3. Genetic drift
Causes of variability
Genetic recombination (cross over)
Sexual recombination
Migration (gene flow)
Natural Selection
*Differences in mortality and reproduction lead to difference in the proportion of alleles passing to the next generation
*Individuals w/ certain heritable traits tend to produce more surviving offspring than do individuals w/o those traits
Sucess of an organism judged in two ways
Absolute = will genome work/can you survive
Relative = is genome best available/ new organism arrives that is better
Selection against dominant trait leads to
Rapid elimination of the trait
Calculating fitness invovles..
Comparing sucess of the favored allele to that of the unfavored allele
Seleciton against recessive trait leads to
slow removal of allele...Aa hides allele
Incomplete or co-dominance then faster
no interacitons producing affects
+ +
- -
+ -
+ -
+ null
barnacles on whales
- 0
red tides
Strategies for competition
Scramble - same resource at different times
Contest competition - same resource same time
Results of Competition
1. One species wins/ other extinct
2. Co-exist shared habitat
a. Shifting advantages
b. Populations maintained below competitive levels
c. Resource partitioning
What is Gause's principle?
Also called...?
Complete competitors cannot co-exist; one will always have a slight advantage
Competitive exclusion principle
Most common types of parasites
How do parasites affect host
Consume Engergy
Destroy cells
Obsruct function of organs
Produce toxins
Results of parasitism
Kill host
Make host sick and therefore easier for predators to catch and easier for parasites to infect
Change behavior of host (cough, sneeze)
What is identiy switching and what is its purpose?
mutation so that immune system cannot recognize it
Prey switching - name two predators and which one can involve in prey switching
Specialized cannot
Generalized can
What is a secondary food source refered to as
Buffer species
Male and female look different?
Sexual Dimorphism
What has the largest sperm in the world
Fruit flys
What is sexual selection?
What are two types?
Competition among individuals of the same sex for reproductive success
Male competition -> breeding rights
Female choice -> choosing
How do sexual and natural selection differ?
SS - battle for reproductive rights
NS - battle for survival
Types of Male Competition
Threat Displays
Sperm Competition
Sperm Removal
Male guard female laying eggs
The larger the testes...
the more sperm produced, the more polygomous the species
What do humans rate as most important in mate choice
Kindness and understanding
Which species is less discriminating and why?
Males are less discriminating because they have a low cost of reproduction
Females have high parental investment
What is runaway selection
Describe traits w/o apparant survival value
Female choose male w/ fancy tail, son inherit trait, daughter inherit tendency to select trait
How are mate preferences developed? turkeys
genetic ie. platyfish
What is kin selection?
A form of natural selection that favors traits that inc. survival or reproduction of an individual's kin at the expense of an individual
Inclusive fitness
sum of the reproductive success of individuals sharing a genotype
How many cousins do you have to save to save yourself
Individual fitness
Determined by the number of an individuals offspring
Number of alleles you leave behind
What is special about Social insects
Queen can control whether she fertilizes an egg or not
If she doesn't it becomes a male
Workers are more closely related to each other than they are their mother
Typological species
Each kind of organism is fixed and immutable and can be represented by an ideal individual, the type specimen
Biological definition of a species
Reproductively isolated group of actually interbreeding natural populations that produce fertile offspring
Inhabit some region of overlap
Inhabit different regions
Problems of Identifying species
Sibling species (Incipient)
Polymorphic species (ie Homo sapiens)
Asexual species
Fossil species
Prezygotic barriers
Ecological Barriers (ie. thermic lines) (habitat)
Behavioral barriers (different courtship displays)
Temporal isolation (butterflies reproduce at different times)
Mechanical barriers
Gametic barriers (egg & sperm incompatible)
Postzygotic barriers
Hybrid inviability (fertilize but zygote dies)
Hybrid sterility - hybrid cant reproduce
Hybrid Breakdown - F1 can reproduce but F2 defective
Physical splitting of habitat
Allopatric speciation
Splitting due to geographic separation
Sympatric speciation
Speciation that occurs without physical isolation (soapberry bug)
Mechanisms for sympatric speciation
Instantaneous speciation
Mutation not probable
Autopolyploidy & Allopolyploidy
Gradual Speciation
K, P, C, O, F, G, -->
Biological Species
Incipient Speices
Race or Breed or Variety
Ancestral Population
Where in Taxonomy can interbreeding occur
Incipient Species
Race or Breed or Vareity
Ancestral population
Unique features of an organism which are specializations for their environment
Difficulties w/ Intelligent Design
Organisms aren't perfect
Vestigal organs
Embryological problems (human tails)
Philosophical difficulties
Theological Argument
Political legal argument
More Scientific arguments
Divergent Evolution
Populations becoming progressively distint the longer they have been in separate gene pools
Adaptive Radiation
Many species with a common ancestor specializing for different life styles
___ structures result from adaptive radiation
Convergent Evolution
Distantly related species independently evolve similar structures
Homologous structures:
Common basic Design
Common embryology
Common ancestor which had original design
Analogous structures:
Common fxn
Different basic design
Different embryology
"Design" not from common ancestor
Adaptation is limited by
Genetic variation
Compromises in natural selection
Certain adaptation preclude others (Size vs. Wings)
In order for adapataion to occur, all steps must have ____ over previous steps
Selective advantage
Not all specializations are adaptations for a given environment because:
Alternative solutions occur
Genetic drift can occur
Pleiotropy can occur
Sexual seleciton can occur
Vestigial organs may exist
Two views of evolution:
Time vs. Differentiation
Phyletic gradualism
Punctuated equilibrium
Characterisitcs of life
Cellular organization
Sensitivity (respond to stimuli)
When did Big Bang happen
what happened
13 BYA
All matter and energy supercondensed and then a cataclismic explosion
What elements formed first and second
H, then He
Percent elements today
98% H 7.1% He .1% other
When did solar system form
4.6 Ga
Layers of earth
Core, outer core, mantel, upper mantle, crust
Oldest rocks
4.4 BYA
Jack Hills Zircons, Australia
First fossils
Blue-green bacteria realted to stromatolites
3.5 BYA
Oldest chemical fossils
Found where
Greenland, 3.8 Ga
Three Hypothesis on the origin
Spore Theory (panspermia)
Spontaneous generation
Primary Abiogenesis
What two scientists are involved with testing spontanteous generation
What is primary Abiogenesis
Who proposed it
Life came from inorganic chemicals (Oparin and Haldane)
Six steps of primary abiogenesis
Chemical evolution
1. Inorganic chemicals
2. organic chemicals
3. Chemical rxns
Biological evolution
4. Reproducing molecules
5. Cells
6. Multicellular organisms
Who was responsible for the Spark-Discharge Experiment
Miller and Urey
Simple sugars produce
Amino Acids
Glycerol and fatty acids
Nucleic Acids
Polymerization can be accomplished by
Adsorption onto minerals and clays w/ catalytic properties
Colloidal drops of organic materials in soln
Colloidal drops of organic materials in soln
Which came first RNA or DNA
Properties of coacervates
Size of small cell
Add enzymes -> you get molecular rxns
Growth and division
When were viruses discovered
late 1800's
Size of virus
Smaller than bacteria
Coat of virus
Capsid (protein coat)
What percent of diseases in US are caused by viruses
What are some positive uses of viruses?
Used to inject new genes into plants & animals - genetic engineering
Phage therapy to attack bacterial infections
Characteristics used to classify viruses (seven)
1. Type of nucleic acid
2. Single or Double stranded
3. Shape of virus
4. Number of capsomeres making up capsid
5. Naked or w/ envelope
6. Size of virus particle
7. Site of reproduction (cytoplasm or nucleus)
There are seven
Lytic Life Cycle
1. Attachment
2. Penetration
3. Replication
4. Assembly
5. Release
Lysogenic Life Cycle
1. Attachment
2. Penetration
3. Integration
4. Replication
5. Lytic
Three major ways viruses enter host cell
What kind of cell for.
Injection (bacterial cells)
Endocytosis (Animal viruses)
Fusion (envelope viruses in animals, i.e. herpes, HIV)
Ways viruses escape
DNA --> via water --> Host
Virus carries host DNA along w/ its own to another host cell
Virus origin
First form of life
Escaped genes hypothesis
Retro viruses
RNA make DNA
HIV stands for
AIDS stands for
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
HIV infects what and does what w/ them
Macrophages and T cells and destroys them
Which HIV causes most problems
What blocks reverse transcriptase
Properties of Prokaryotes
Single Cells
No nuclear membrane
Single circular membrane
No organelles such as mitochonria, choroplasts, or internal membranse
Plasmids - DNA chunks
Monera originated in what kind of environment
Name the exremophiles and their kingdom
Reproduction in Prokaryotes
Binary fission
Conjugation (2 bacteria transmit plasmid via pilus)
Variability in Monera develop via
Glucose (6c) -> 2 ATP and 2 Pyruvic Acid(3c) -> Alcohol (2c) Acetic acid (2c) Pyruvic Acid (3c) lactic acid (3c) Krebs cycle (2c)
Notes on Fermentation
Only small amt NRG released
Not complete breakdown of organic matter
Occurs in cytoplasm
No oxygen used
Using inorganic chem. rxn. to generate NRG...need Oxygen
Photosynthesis in plants eqn.
Water + CO2 -->(light) C6H12O6 + O2 + ATP
In Blue-Green bacteria chlorophyll a is where
On internal membranes in cytoplasm
Green & Purple bacteria have what chlorophyll
Eqn. for photosynthesis
How many photosystems
What is source of H and electrons
H2S + CO2 --> (sun) Sugar + dec S + ATP
When was world anaerobic
4.6 BYA
Anaerobic vs. aerobic photosystems
aerobic - 2
anaerobic - 1
When did Aerobic photosynthesis evolve
3.5 BYA
Aerobic world began when?
What did this mean?
2.3 BYA
Kreb's cycle evolved, ozone layer developed, land could be occupied
Kindgom protista are the first...
Three major groups of eukaryotes
Animal-like protista = protozoa
Fungal like protista = lack chloroplasts, produce spores, heterotrophic (Slime Molds)
Plant-like protista = unicellular algae (have chloroplasts, photosyntheic, classified by pigments)
Four major groups of Animal-like protista
Sporozoa (lack movement)
Type of flagellate
Flagella is _____ to that of bacteria
Analogous, remember 9 + 2 structure
Cilia relation to flagella...
Closely related, more elaborate organelles
Types of shells and example species
Silicon --> Radiolarians
Calcium Carbonate --> Foraminiferans
How are protozoa related to multi-celluar animals.
Choanoflagellates are inside Cnidaria
Characteristics of protoflagellates
Nuclear membrane, organelle, mitosis, heterotrophism, 9 + 2 flagellum
Phytoflagellates are
Single-celled algae
Three major groups of phytoflagellates
Two hypothesis of eukaryotic evolution
Membrane infolding
Endosymbiotic hypothesis
What organelles arose from membrane infolding
Nuclear membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Similarities between bacteria and mitochondria and chloroplasts
1. Binary fission
2. Size
3. Single circular naked DNA
4. Same size ribosomes (small)
5. Protein synthesis inhibited by antibodies
6. Enzymes for synthesis of DNA, RNA, Protein similar
7. Electron transport system in walls of the structure
8. Chloroplast ribosomes + Bacterial ribosomes --> Hybrid ribosomes that fxn normally
9. Mutualism is very common in bacteria + Protista
Species w/ bacteria in/on it and spirochetes on it
Myotricha paradoxa
Red algae help build
Coraline algae secrete calcium carbonate
Type of mutualisitc green algae
in hydra
What are lichens?
Typically what division
Mutualistic association between algae and fugi
How do we characterize plants?
Presence or absence of vascular tissue
Life Cycles
Xylem do what
Located whereHow many directions
Carry water and minerals, main for water!
One way
Phloem do what
Located where
How many directions
Carry water and sugar, mainly sugar
Two way
What does gametogagia mean
Gamete producing organs
Seeds consist of
Embyro + Seed Coat + Food source
Who has naked seeds
Who has seeds in flowers
List evidence that algea are ancestors of land plants
Ch. a & b
True starch as photosynthetic end product
Starch grains inside chloroplasts
Whiplash flagella
Diverse life cycles and reproduciton
Asexual and sexual phases
Haploid and diploid phases
Unicellular and multicellular species
Closest ancestor to land plants?
Earliest tracheophyte?
Club mosses
Early tracheophytes have..
First land plants evolved when
480 MYA
First fossils are of...
What are two selective advantages for living on land?
Less competition for light and nutrients
Less predation
4 problems w/ new evironment
Physical support
Water loss and availability
Reproducition...need water
Temp fluctuations
How do plants deal with physical support?
Internal support
Roots anchor plants in soil and acquire nutrients and water
Stems: turgor pressure in cells, lignin as wood
How do plants deal with Water loss and availability
Conserve and acquire water
Leaves as surface area for photosynthesis
Hooks and hairs reduce evaporation
Stomates and guard cells
Acquire water from soil via roots and root hairs and xylem
How do plants deal with water and reproduction?
Seed dispersal via
and examples
Water, coconuts
Animals cockleburs
Fruits whose seed dispersers are extinct
3 examples
Anachronistic fruits
Osage orange
Honey locust
Devil's foot gourd
Two types of leaf evolution
Microphyll evolution (club mosses)
Megaphyll evolution
Oxygen photosynthesis occurs in which photosystem
oxygen started by what organism
What are electrophoresis, amino acid sequencing, and immunological techniques used for?
Protein similarities
Character displacement
Rapid evolutionary change that causes two closely related species to quickly become different. The rationale for character displacement is the Principle of Competitive Exclusion, which requires only one species to occupy a given ecological niche at a time so as to be able to experience rapid and unimpeded growth.
probability of homozygous recessive matings
Most species arise from what kind of speciation
What is the most common reproductive isolation mechanism between animals?
Behavioral isolation
E. coli bacterium is same size as
Two essential parts to evolution according to darwin
Natural Selection and Variation
What produces Selection?
Internal Environment (Genetic Environment, Physiological/developmental Environment)
External Environment
(Physical Environment, Biological Environment {Competitoin, Predation, parasitism, food supply, mate seleciton})
Sickle-Cell Anemia in africa
Mild sickle cell anemia has an advantage over normal ppl b/c it makes them resistant to malaria
Shifting Advantages
Survive better under different beetles at different humididites...can co-exist as long as one doesnt get upper hand
Resoruce partitioning
Species specialize resources to not compete
Results of Parasite-Host Interactions
Host can become extinct
Co-existence between host and parasite
Identity switching
Co-evolution of parasite and host (rabbits in australia)
Polymorphic species
Species with many different types of individuals
How do new adaptations originate?
1. De Novo
2. Pre-Adaptation (modification fo pre-existing structure for new uses, all steps must have a selective advantage over previous steps
HIV has __ strands of ___.
2 strands of RNA
Monera developed in what kind of environment
What chlorophylls do cyanobacteria use?
Where located?
Located on internal membrane in cytoplasm
Which evolved first: mitochondria or chloroplasts?
When did the first multicellular organism evolve?
1.7 BYA
Major groups of Phytoflagellates calssified by ?
Zoochlorellae is a ?
Green algae
Non-swimming sperm with tough water resistant coat
Two major evolutionary changes in land plants
Games are produced in complex, multicellular structures
After fertilization, the embryo is retained on teh parent plant with nourishment
First green algae
700 MYA
Angiosperms do not have...
What is the only process that consistently leads to adaptation?
Natural selection!