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44 Cards in this Set

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Which country has the greatest area?
Asia
Which country has the greatest population?
China (2nd India)
Which country has the greatest child mortality?
India
Which country has the greatest energy consumption?
U.S.
Which country has the greatest greenhouse gasses?
U.S.
What is emission per capita?
The amount of greenhouse gasses emitted per person.
What is natural growth?
The difference between crude birth rate and crude death rate
What is energy consumption per capita?
The amount of energy consumed per person
What is crude birth rate?
# of births per 1000 individuels per year
What is crude death rate?
# of deaths per 1000 individuals per year
What is net immigration?
the people coming into this country minus the people going out
How do you calculate future population?
Future Population =
P2 = P1+(B-D)+(I-E)
What kind of social/demographic characteristics are revealed in each of the population age structure? U.S? India?
U.S.-Stable elders living longer and less birth rate.
India- Pyrimid death rate higher and high growth rate
What are the migration patterns?
Pull factors & Push factors
What is the Pull factor?
Factors that are attractive for immigrants
What is the Push factor?
Factors that are repellent leading to emigration
What is fertility rate?
The number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
Logistic growth curve
The S-shaped growth curve that is generated by the logistic growth equation. In the logistic, a small population grows rapidly, but the growth rate slows down, and the populatiion eventually reaches a constant size
Logistic carrying capacity
In terms of the logistic curve, the population size at which births equals deaths and there is no net change in the population
Replacement level fertility
fertility rate required for the population to remain a constant size
Total fertility rate
Average number of children expected to be born to a woman durin her lifetime. (usually to 44, taken conventionally as the lower and upper limit of reproductive ages for women)
What are the demographic transitions?
Stage 1 lower death rate, undeveloped
stage 2 higher growth rate,transitional
stage 3 low birth and death rate,stable
Will the less developed countries follow the same demographic transition?
Yes, Decline in population growth
Envirnmental Impact T = P*I
Total environment effect is calculted by total population times impact per person
What is Malthus prophesy?
population will continue to grow so much that we will cause premature death by plague.
What are the three scientific methods in estimating how many people can live on the earth? what are their assumptions?
Logistic growth curve, packing approach and deep ecology
Limiting factors of human population growth
Short term factors= food shortage, energy, disease
intermediate factors= desertification, pollutants
long term factors= soil erosion, climate change
Asteroid strike
*Irridium a common metal in meteorites *Chic xulub crater, Mexico *Both carbon dated to the end of cretaceous period
What is the theory?
Asteroid wiped out dinosaures
What are the implications of the events?
Impact of Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 ash columns as high as 24 km (~15 miles) *Aerosols in the stratosphere *1992 global average temp. dropped 0.5c (0.9F) *Depletion of ozone
What do these events imply?
A local event can have a global impact
What is atmoshpere
the thin layer of gases that envelopes the earth
what is the composition of the atmosphere?
the greenhouse gasses are carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and methane
What are the characteristics of troposphere vs. stratosphere?
Troposphere 0-15 km, 75% of the mass of atmosphere, almost all water vapor and aerosols, zone of istability. Stratosphere (13-50km), zone of stability, protective ozone.
If an air parcel is heated and rise, how will the following characteristics of the air parcel change?
Warm air rises, higher altitude, low pressure. Cool air lower altitude, high pressure.
Temperature
a mesure of thermal energy in the air warm air rises cool air sinks
Air pressure
the force of air per unit area
relative humidity
the ratio between the actual amount of water in the air to the maximum holding caicity (i.e. saturated)
What are the 3 processes of atmosphere attenuation?
The weakening of solar intensity- *Reflection *Absorption *Scattering
What is atmospheric window?
THe region the electomagnetic spectrum that are reletively free from the effects of atmospheric attenuation
What is greenhouse effect?
the warming of the earth due to trapping of longwave
What is global warming?
A natural or human induced increase in the average global temperature of the earth.
What is the trend of climate in the past 100 years, the futere 100 years?
last 100 years 0.6c future 1.5-6.0 c
What are the sources of greenhouse gases? how are they released into the atmosphere?
Carbon Dioxide 50-60% burning of fossil fuels forest fire, Methane 12-20% biological produtions & decomposition of organic manner & landfill, Nitrous oxide 5% fertilizers burning of fossil fuels, CFC/HFC 15-25% anthropegenic products