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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Chemical digestion breaks down polysaccharides into ____?
glucose
Why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens?
so they can only act in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
in startvation, kidneys synthesize glucose by..
deaminating amino acids
organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood:
liver
which bile component has digestive function?
bile salts
pancreatic enzymes that are secreted in response to the hormone?
CKK
which nutrient is absorbed by lacteals of small intestine?
triglycerides
which is not a component of pancreatic juice?
trypsinogen, pepsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, sodium bicarbonate
pepsinogen
true or false? Rugae absorbtive surface in small intestine?
false
Intestinal crypts of small intestine are similar to ____of the stomach?
gastric pits
Peptidases break down?
proteins
SGLP:
transports glucose and sodium from intestinal lumen into epithelial cells
amino acids and monosaccharides and fatty acids are absorbed in the?
small intestine
Lecithin and bile acids prepare fats for hydrolysis by forming?
emulsification droplets
proteins are digested by different enzymes in this sequence?
pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
Transport lipids to surface of intestinal absorptive cells?
micelles
Micelles process lipids into...
chylmicrons
abundent classes of nutrients:
fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
T or F bacteria flora digest most of proteins we get in our diet?
false
by-product of protein catabolisim and constitutes approx. 50% of nitrogenous waste?
urea
true or false?cardiovascular system doesn't excrete waste?
true
true or false?kidney releases waste into the bloodstream
false
is collecting duct consitute an organ of urinary system?
no!
fatty acids are catabolized by a process called:
beta oxidation
last structure in urine flow?
urethra
outermost structure of kidney
capsule
pyramids are areas located within which part of kidney?
medulla
structure which receives filtrate from glomerulus is:
bowman capsule
which vessel direct blood into glomerulus?
distal convoluted tobule
innermost connective tissue layer protecting kidney and assisting in startving off infection is known as:
fibrous capsule
a single lobe of kidney is comprised of?
one pyrmaid and overlying cortex
trace blood flow from renal artery into renal cortex:
segmental a.->interlobular a. ->arcuate a->interlobular a.
transition from afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the:
glomerulus
how many nephrons in the kidney?
1.2 million
_____ in the urine would most like suggest trauma to the kidneys but not the bladder.
albuminuria
does the liver produce insulin and glucagon?
no
major part of the aqueous component of pancreatic juice:
bicarbonate ions
function of bile?
emulsifies fat
inner layer of intestine is:
mucosa
enzymes that digest protein:
carboxypeptidase, chymotrypsin, pepsin, trypsin
macronutrients include:
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
___constitute "bad cholesterol"
low density lipo proteins
high HDL and Low LDL is?
healthies ratio
reaction for aerobic respiration:
C6H12O6-> 6CO2+6H2O
Product of glycolysis:
pyruvic acid
most of bodys fat is stored as:
triglycerids
urine producing portion of the kidney is the:
nephron
liver converts ammonia to:
urea
inner lighter colored portion of the kidney:
medulla
outer, reddish brown portion of the kidney:
cortex
spherical structure where primary urine is produces, consisting of capillary network and two conering layers of epithelial cells:
renal corpuscle
filtration apparatus of the kidney consists of a layer of glomerular endothelial cells and a layer of visceral epithelial cells seperated by a thick:
glomerular basement membrane
capillary network from which primary filtrate of urine is derived is called:
glomerulus
product of nucleic acid catabolism:
uric acid
lympahtic capillary located in center of villus is called:
lacteal
presenece of blood in urine is called:
hematuria