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56 Cards in this Set

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G protein breaks down and attaches to what ...... in order to create enzymes?
Adenylate Cyclase

breaks down 2atp to cAMP
Does active transport move up or down?
UP, since uphill is work ATP is necessary
5th step in Active Transport?
Protein changes confirmation...
2K+ released into icf
The difference of concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell are called?
Chemical force
Why is the cytoplasm neg in charge compared to the ECF?
cellular proteins
phosphate proteins
both are impermeable so cant leave
5 steps in active transport
1. 3NA moves into cell 2. ATP breaks down to ADP and aspase is phosphorylated
stimulation defined?
excitability - irritability
hyperpolarizing graded potential is?
IPSP - inhibitory postsynaptic potential
why is primary pump important?
it burns ATP
calmodulin activates which enzyme?
kinase
what is phenylalanine?
amino acid
where is the nicotinic ach receptor?
neuromuscular junction NMJ and ganglion
autonomic nerve end?
ach is inhibitory or excitory
what is primary active transport?
spending energy
how is strength of depolarization determined?
how much charge (NA+) enters the cell
sequence of events in nerves?
synapsis,
"SNARE"
how many neurons are affected

what stimulates the membrane potential

has to do with chemical trigger
what are indolamines?
serotonin
histamine

both distributed in the brain
nicatinic receptor?
chemically gated channel
uses atp directly
carrier protein required ?
yes
muscarinic uses a link called?
middleman!
G protein
nicotine always?
stimulates
CA activates a protein called?
calmodulin
amount of charge a cell has is called
membrane potential
secondary active transport depends on what?
primary active transport
why is the cytoplasm negative compared to the extracellular fluid?
cellular proteins
phosphate groups of atp
both are impermeable so can't leave
types of endocytosis
phagocytosis
pinocytosis
receptor
how many receptors for epinepherine?
two, alpha and beta
sequence of catecholines?
phenyalalanine
tyrosine
dopa / dopamine
norepinepherine
epinepherine
what does the cyclic amp (cAMP) do?
activates protein kinase
opens NA / K channel
makes heart fast / strong
where does graded potential occur?
in the cell body and dendrites
What is direct coupling?
when receptor and channel are the same structure
what other element in found in the extra cellular fluid
Lots of H+ (hydrogen)
catecholamines are?
Dopa
Dopamine
Norepinepherine
epinepherine
what is a synapse?
functional connection between 2 neurons presynaptic and post synaptic
when a cell is resting the charge is called?
Resting
43 total nerves... how many of each?
12 cranial
31 spinal
where are nerves found in the CNS?
outside
exocytosis is stimulated by?
Snare, signal through membrane receptors neurotransmitter in nerve endings
what makes vesicular transport take place?
ATP or GTP
phagocytosis
extensions of the cells legs reaching out
pinocytosis
invaginations or dips (bowl like)
latent period of muscle contraction is?
not in contraction yet?
negative contraction is also known as?
passive stretching
tonus is?
continued contraction also considered action potential
positive contraction
force stays the same, length does not change
CNS
brain and spinal cord
PNS
nerves, ganglia, and nerve plexus, outside of the CNS
sensory neuron - afferent
neuron that transmits impulses from a sensory receptor to CNS
motor neuron - efferent
neuron that trnsmits impulses from the CNS to an effector organ, such as a muscle
nerve
bundle of axons containing sensory and motor fibers
ganglion
grouping of neuron cell bodies located outside the cns
nucleus
grouping of neuron cells within the cnx
tract
grouping of nerve fibers that interconnect regions fo the cns
nerves are always found outside of what?
CNS
Bundles of axons are always found inside of what?
Tract