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28 Cards in this Set

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matter
anythign w. mass that takes up space
substance
smallest particle-all samples are identical
element or compound
element
all atoms of one element have the same # of protons
compound
chemical combination of elements, can NOT be separated by physical means
mixture
combination of elements
CAN be separated by physical means

(evaporation, magnetism etc)
heterogeneous

homogeneous
hetero--uneven mixture, not all samples are the same

homo-all samples are the same, evenly spread
solid

liquid

gas
solid- little movement of atoms, definite shape and volume

liquid- movement of atoms, definite volume

gas-lots of movement of atoms, indefinite shape and volume
chemical change

physical change
chem-changes the way atoms are bonded, creates a new subs

phys-change in the physical state (solid, liquid, gas)
atom
smallest particle of an element
atomic mass

atomic number

mass number

atomic mass unit
atomic mass--avg mass of all naturally occuring isotopes

atomic number- # of prortons, identity of atom

mass #-# of protons plus # of neutrons

Atomic mass unit (amu)-weight of proton/neutron--1/12 of Carbon-12
proton

neutron

electron
proton-wieght of 1 amu, positively charged, found in the nucleus

neutron-no charge, in the nucleus, weight of 1 amu

electron-negativley charged,little weight, orbits nucleus
isotope
atoms with the same atomic mass, but different mass numbers. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Fusion

Fission
Fusion-2 nuclei combine to create one larger nucleus

Fission-One nucleus splits off into two smaller nuclei, often emits stray neutrons
radiocactive decay
Hw unstable nuclei achieve stability
alpha

beta

positron

gamma
alpha-emits alpha particle
atomic # -2
mass # -4

beta-emits beta particle
atomic # +1
mass # 0 change

Positron-emits positron
atomic # -1
mass # 0 chage

Gamma-emits energy
half-life
The amount of time it takes for half a sample of a given substance to decay
Where is most of the mass of an atom?
Nucleus
What particles are heavy? light?
Protons and Neutrons are heavy
electrons are light
Why does the nucleus stay together?
protons repel eachother BBUT
nuclear force (is stonger) attracts protons and neutrons to eachother
What makes a nucleus stable?
small isotopes # of neutrons (N) = number of protons (Z)

large isotopes
N/Z =1/1.5
Law of Conservation of Mass, Energy
Mass and energy cannot be creeated or destroyed EXCEPT in nuclear reactions, when mass and energy are interchangeable
(change in)e=(change in)mc2
c=speed of light (3*10^8 m/s)
m-mass
e=energy
Mass Defect
if mass goes down, energy goes up
if energy goes down, mass goes up
Einstein
e=mc2
energy and mass are interchangeable
time is dependent on the speed of light
Faraday
electromagnetism
light=electromagnetic wave
Lavoisier
law of conservation of mass
interchangeable physical states
separated hydrogen and oxygen
Meitner
discovered fission
atoms can be broken up
Divisions of matter
Matter --> substance & muxture

Substance-->element & compound

Mixture-->homogeneous & heterogeneous

homogeneous mixture=solution