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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social problem
Social condition that a segment of society views as harmful to members of society And in need of remedy(can be changed through social and political action)
A particular angle of vision on social life
“taken for granted” aspects
Social stratification
Society is divided into “strata”- each with its share of power, privilege and
The meanings and ways of life that characterize a society
Social structure
Refers to the ways society is organized.
prediction or educated guess about how one variable is related to another
A set of interrelated propositions or principles designed to answer a question
Or explain a particular phemonmenon.
Constructionist view of Social Problems
-Emphasizes the subjective nature of social problems
-Social problems are problems because they are define as problems
Realist view of Social Problems
-Emphasize the objective natural of social problems
-Even if a situation isn’t defined as real, it still has consequences
Sociological Perspective
Peter Berger- Sociology is justified by the belief that it is better to be conscious
Than unconscious and consciousness is a condition of freedom
Elements of Social Structure
1. Institutions
2. Social Groups
3. Statuses
4. Roles
Elements of Culture
1. Beliefs
2. Values
3. Norms
4. Symbol
3 Aspects of Theory
Attempt to make sense of some aspect of reality
2. Attempt to be efficient
3. Guide sociological analysis and research by providing specific hypothesis
to study
C. Wright Mills
Sociological Imagination- defines sociology primarily as
1. A liberating perspective
2. A strategic vantage point for understanding human history, contemporary society, and our place within it
3. A form of self-consciousness that encourages reflexivity in our daily life
4. A starting point for examining the “intersection between biography and history” The sociological perspective understands the role of social forces in causing social change, but also appreciated the unique contribution of the individual.
A theoretical perspective that sees “society as a system of interconnected parts
That work together in harmony to maintain a state of balance and social
Equilibrium for the whole
-focuses on how the “parts” of society relate to one another,
Manifest Function
The main function of an institution
Latent Function
The secondary function, not primary reason for institution
Social pathology
Implies the society’s social problems are a function of sickness
Social disorganization-
Rapid social change results in normlessness
Conflict theory
Views society as composed of different groups and interests competing for power
And resources
Social stratification
Society is divided into “stata” each with its share of power, privilege and resource
Marx’s Conflict Theory
Posited that society consists of two parts- the economic substructure (how work is organized) and Superstructure (Ideas of society)
Symbolic Interactionism
Emphasizes that human behavior is influenced by definitions and meanings that
Are created and maintained through symbolic interaction with others
-SI is interested in how individuals shape meaning and how that process of
shaping meaning shapes the individual
Stages of conducting research
1. Formulating a research question:
2. Review Literature
3. Formulate a hypothesis
4. Defining and measuring variables
5. Collecting data
6. Summarizing data
7. Testing hypothesis
8. Think about original problem in light of findings.
General problems with health care
1. Degree of income inequality
2. System is cure oriented not prevention oriented
3. Individuals not taking responsibility for health
4. Lack of access
5. Fragmentation of health care
6. 3rd party system of payment
7. Cost of drugs
8. Complexity of health care system
9. Aging society
Government health care organization
1. HMO
2. Managed Care
3. Medicare
4. Medicaid
Epidemiological Transition
1. The age of Pestilence and Famine
2. Age of Receding Pandemics
a. Ecobiological change
b. Sociocultural and economic transition
3. Age of degenerative and “man-made” disease
4. Age of delayed degenerative disease
¼ not aware
70% new infections in men and the rest in women
Leading cause of death worldwide, ages 15-59
20 million have died and 40 million are currently infected
Growing Problem with Obesity
-Obesity is associated with a host of other diseases and with diminished life
Expectancy for the individual and a reduced life expectancy for the nation
-2nd most significant cause of preventable death; tobacco is number one
-BMI- body mass index (25-29) indicates about the percent overweight, while 30
is obese, 40 or greater is considered massively obese.
Causes of Obesity
1. The McDonaldization of our foodways
2. FDA has always backed a meat-based diet
3. Dieting game (dietic fads)
4. Lack of exercise
5. Schools have dropped regular physical activity
Cultural and Social Structure Factors explain drug use in our society
1. Society affluence-
2. Value placed on (pleasure)
3. High rate of poverty
4. Cultural acceptance of drugs
5. Young adults are not properly socialized to use drugs responsively
6. The availability of drugs
7. Social and Cultural integration
Consequences of drug and alcohol abuse
1. Family costs- single biggest common trait of wife abuse;
2. Crime costs- deeply implicated in drug and alcohol use and abuse.
3. Economic costs
4. Health costs
5. Car accidents
Governmental Approaches
1. Harm reduction- reducing the “cost” of use to the individual
2. Zero-tolerance- increase the “cost” of use through harsher penalties
3. Proposition 36- California law passed via referendum requiring first and second-time minor drug offenders receive treatment, therapy, family counseling rather than jail time
Reduction of government control over certain drugs
Removing penalties for certain drugs, along with promoting a medical as opposed to criminal approach to drugs
Affirms the rights of adults to make an informed choice
Directed toward nonusers or to experiments who are in the earliest stages
Directed to those who have developed a pattern of regular or irregular use to prevent their moving to the next heavier stages
3 types of approaches
-Information/knowledge education- based on the assumption that drug use
results from lack of understanding of drugs and their dangers

-Affective education- attempt to inculcate the right affect or emotion, attitude
toward drugs and toward the self, such as self-esteem education

-Social influence/skills education- teach students about the social influences that
can affect drug choices, specially peers, media, family and to help people get
along without the use of drugs