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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who said this quote in 1493?
"The physician who wants to know man must look upon him as a whole"
Who said "The art of medicine consists of amusing the patient while nature cures the disease"
Who said "The good physician treats the disease; the great physician treats the patient who has the disease"
Sir William Osler
who was the father of pathology?
Structure = ...
This is a definition of what?
-An architectural system in which structures stabilize themselves by balancing counteracting forces of compression and tension
... are the patient's subjective experience of changes in his or her body. ... are objectively observable abnormalities in the body.

What is this?
-informational content of nutrition and how it influences gene expression
-effect on phenotype
-the application genomics tools in nutrition research
What is this?
-impaired or altered function of related components of the body framework system: skeletal, arthrodial and myofascial structures, and their related vascular, lymphatic, and neural elements. It is treatable using osteopathic manipulative treatment.
somatic dysfunction
90% of clinician decision making is based on the ... and ...
physical examination
what are the mammals most reliant on tactile sensations
what are the 4 osteopathic principles?
-hippocrates, paracelsus
-hippocrates, voltaire
-the human body is a dynamic unit of function
-the body possesses self-regulatory mechanisms which are self healing in nature
-structure and function are interrelated at all levels
-rational treatment is based on these principles
if you are able to put your hands on someone and able to feel that something is wrong, you have ... reflexes
what are Merkel's disks and Meissner's corpuscles and where are they located?
touch receptors
pads of the fingers
Heat receptors lie deeper, so the ... of the hand is more sensitive to sensing temperature changes.
dorsum (back) of the hand
What are the 4 diagnostic criteria of somatic dysfunction
Tissue texture abnormality
Restriction of motion
Tenderness (sensitivity)
OMT is a diagnostic tool. it treats patietns with syndromes/diseases/dysfunctions. It does not treat a ...
These are signs of what?
-decreased heat
-dryness and slick
-stringiness of tissue
chronic somatic dysfunction
structure and ... are reciprocally interrelated
who said this?
"If you listen long enough, the patient will tell you what is wrong with them"
what are these?
-muscle energy
-myofascial release - direct and indirect
-balanced ligamentous relase
-osteopathy in the cranial field
-visceral release
OMT techniques
What plane divides the body front and back?
what plane divides the body left and right?
what plane divides the body top and bottom (cranial and caudal)?
Flexion/extension movement happens around a ... axis in the ... plane
sidebending involves movement around a ... axis in a ... plane
Rotation involves movement around a ... axis in a ... plane
what is the reference point for superior/inferior and medial/lateral?
describe prone position
laying face down
describe supine position
laying face up
describe lateral recumbent position
laying on your side
describe trendelenberg position
lying supine with table at an angle to position head below level of feet
What does this describe?
-patient relaxes and outside force is used to push beyond active barrier.
Passive range of motion
passive ROM is (lesser or greater) than active ROM?
What is the barrier of passive ROM?
anatomic barrier
What is the barrier of active ROM
Physiologic barrier
the range between physiologic and anatomic barriers in which passive ligamentous stretching occurs. When the joint has moved beyond this barrier, the anatomic barrier is disrupted. The increased range of motion is pathological.
elastic barrier
permanent restriction of joint motion associated with pathologic changes of tissues (i.e. contractures, osteophytes). Creates new anatomic barrier which is not able to be overcome by manipulation.
Can pathologic barriers be fixed by manipulation?
no, because there is permanent restriction
can restrictive barriers be fixed by manipulation?
what type barrier are these?
-muscle spasm
-fascial strain
-ligamentous scarring
restrictive barrier
this is a perceived quality of motion as an anatomic or physiologic restrictive barrier is approached. It will give info on ligamentous integrity, bony abnormalities, fascial strain or muscle imbalances
end feel
the end feel of the ... barrier should feel springy.
what does capsulitis feel like?
pain/crepitus during all of ROM
what does ligamentous strain feel like?
pain at end of ROM testing
what type of joint allows minimal motion?
fibrous joints

held together by fibrous connective tissue
what type of joint allows a small amount of motion?
cartilaginous joints

bones held together by cartilage
what type of joint allows the greatest amount of motion?
synovial joints.

Articular surfaces surrounded by a synovial membrane. Synovial fluid fills cavity
these are examples of what type of joint?
-radioulnar articulation
-tibiofibular articulation
-sutures of skull
-gomphoses (tooth anchored in)
fibrous joint
these are examples of what type of joint?
-intervertebral disks
-costosternal joints
cartilaginous joints
What are the 5 different types of synovial joints?
ball and socket
saddle joint
hinge joint
pivot joint
what type of joint is least stable and has the greatest amount of motion?

give 2 examples
ball and socket

what type of joint are the wrists?
what type of joint does the axis and atlas have?
pivot joint
ipsilateral revers to ...
on the same side as
contralateral = ?
on the opposite side from
What does this describe?
-patient moves joint on their own to maximum barrier. We can evaluate this independently of strength by having patient move with gravity removed.
active range of motion
With ..., the muscles of the arm and forearm are hardened by contraction. This prevents active flexion beyond 145 degrees
active ROM
with ..., the relaxed muscles can flatten against each other. This allows flexion up to 160 degrees.
passive ROM
functional limit within the anatomic range of motion, which diminishes physiologic range. Can be overcome by manipulative treatment.
the end feel of a ... barrier will feel hard, indicating myofascial or articular pathology
Harrison Fryette, in 1918, noted certain rules which ...

Combined these rules with principles of somatic dysfunction to establish Fryette's Laws.

used as guidelines for diagnosis and treatment
govern spinal motion
... are areas of articulation. Superior and inferior ... articulate with vertebra above and below. Found on all vertebrae.
At rib articulations, areas are called ...

Found on thoracic vertebrae
which spine facets are oriented in more horizontal plane?
which spine facets are oriented in a more vertical plane and facing anteriorly?
which spine facets are oriented in a vertical plane and facing medially?
lumbar spine facets
superior facet orientation of cervical spine
superior facet orientation of thoracic spine
superior facet orientation of lumbar spine
rotation is coupled with ... motion
freyett's first law
-applies to group curves
-spine in neutral position
-when dysfunction occurs, has to do with large group of muscles
side bending and rotation are in opposite directions
what type of curve are these muscles involved in?
Erector spinae
Quadratus Lumborum
type 1 curves
Freyett's second law
-single segment
-non-neutral (flexion or extension position)
-side bending and rotation are to same side
what type of lesion are these muscles involved in?
-levator costae
type 2 lesions
hip drop test:
when you drop the left hip, you will side bend to the ...

(opposite hip)
Fryette's third principle:
Initiating motion of a segment in any plane will...
modify movement of that segment in all other directions