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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Reconstruction-Andrew Johnson
1. becomes president after lincoln is assassinated
2. Shows up drunk for inaguration
3. Aims for minimal penelties for the south
4. Gives out tons of pardons
5. doesn't cooperate with congress
5. impeached
7. Survives by 1 vote
keeps the independence of the presidency
1. Started with a moderate republican congress
2. increase in radicals due to intent to punish south
3. pass series of laws to keep Johnson in line
4. Tenure of Office Act
Free Citizens Vote
13th-Abolishes Slavery
14th-Makes slaves into citizens
15th-voting rights
-blacks living on white's land, recieving crop
-yearly contracts
Not good solution
-terms favor landowners
-not much independence
-price falls out of cotton
3 types of reconstruction people
Carpetbaggers-Northerners heading south to contribute or steal
Scallawags-southerners cooperating with reconstruction
Freedman Voters-Led to republican governments, some blacks in office
Nathan Bedford Forrest
-Confederate calvery commander
-Say violence is nessesary to control freedman
Reconstruction-Grant Administration
-Not great administrator or president
-has to keep dealing with reconstrution
-works to supress the klan and succeeds
-motivation behind klan continues
Reconstrution-RB Hayes
-Runs against Samuel Tilles
-A lot of freedman voting
-congress appoints a commision
-Hayes named president
-Hayes promised to remove last troops from south
Results of New South Mentality
-Some industrialization (steel works, textiles)
-South had cheap labor which drew northern factories innto the south
-Low wages, women and children
-Raw materials
-northerners still earn more money
the economy still fails
Jim Crow Laws
-voting limits go into place (grandfather clauses, poll taxes)
-seperate but equal
-Plessy vs Ferguson
Plessy vs Ferguson
Railroad Cars
creates legal cover for all segregation
stays in south for next 50 years
lynching begins during this period
THE WEST words
1. progress
2. wealth
3. multicultural
4. new creation
5. regeneration through violence
6. struggle
7. shaper of American life
Homestead Act
-republican ideal
-any settler has the right to 160 acres of land
-work the land for 5 years
-reaches to the rockies
Sand Creek Massacre
John Chivington-kills all even though they surrender
Souix Indians/ Great Souix War
1. Badlands until gold was found
2. Colonal Armstrong Custer
3. Custer's last stand
4. He underestimates the #s
5. little big horn custer's army was defeated
-souix forced onto reservations
Red River War
-captured, escaped, recaptured,
-also pushed onto reservation
Chief Joseph (not attack, run from it)
-tried to get out of US into Canada
-Almost made it, 30 miles
-Sent to Oklahoma
1887 Dawes Act
indian schools
breaking reservations into private settlements
Mormon pilgrimage
Joseph Smith-revelation of meroni, an angel will lead him to golden plates written in egyption and the only person who could see them were smith
Went from Kirkland Ohio to Independence Missouri to Navvoo illinois
-smith starts training militia bands
-runs for president of the us
-Smith was arrested
People lynch him
Brigham Young-Mormon Prophet
The Mormon War
mountain meadows massacre
mormons kill an entire wagon train
Mormons in Utah
Move to Provo utah
polygamy is outlawed but is tolerated by community of Utah
1890 mormon leadership has revelation that polygamy should no longer been followed
- Utah becomes a state
particularly important for settling the west
transcontinental railroad is completed
Allowed other industries to become big
become consolidated and standardized
starts to control the time, time-zones
Disapear as vains pull out
some ast and create bigger regions (san fransisco)
Vigilante Justice
More control of territory from states
Middleclass families change dynamics
a lot of defeated confederate soldiars
freed blacks
texas longhorn cattle is able to travel long distances
would bring them to railroad Chisholm trail
they fade because of weather, economics
ranchers paid the cowboys to take cattle
government is encourageing growth of railroads
massive amounts of land
managerial revolution
-buisness schools
-mba degree
large buisnessmen
encourage speculation
Much better then Iron
Andrew Carnagie
-bessemer process
steel and railroads are mutually beneficial
sells out to JP Morgan
Areas of pennsylvania
John D Rockafellor
-standard oil
-creates trusts and holding companies
trust-sharing stock in different companies
Interlocking directories-most informal some people on multiple boards of directors
Holding Company-formal company that's job is to direct all companies it holds stock in
Makes people incredibly wealthy
William Booth
Began the salvation army
The laborers hated his argument because they were ill-treated, low paid, worked long hours.
-Believed they could work together
-Great railroad strike of 1877
-Ultimetely still unorganized
Knights of Labor
terrance powderley
one organization for all laborers
lots of different interests
campaigns for a range of reforms
Ends with associated with haymarket affair
Haymarket Affair
mckormic sets up huge factory
workers decide to strike, not recognized
others in Chicago decide to rally
demonstration in haymarket square
police decide to disperse it, somebody throws bomb, at least one policemen killed, bloodshed
association with knights of labor does them in
The American Federation
Samuel Gompers
only organizes craft laborers
unions organized by craft
pure and simple unions-collective bargaining
Homestead strike
carnagies largest steel mill led by Henry Frick
Frick decides to play hardball with a private police force
shootouts and bloodshed
ultimetely strike fails
Pullmen Strike
People in charge of pullmen cars
comes close to grinding railroad system to a halt
federal government called in to break up strike
Why is there Urbanization
-Cities have various economic opportunities
-pittsburgh becomes steel town, minneapolis mill town
-slaughterhouses become big in Chicago
intrests and excitment
walking city- streetcar city
characteristics of Immigrants
25 million immigrants
settle in concentrated patterns, primarily in cities
before civil war-northern europe
after civil war-southern and eastern europe
Irish-potato famine of 1840s
City Photographer
Jacob Riis
Direct effects of darwinism
Social Darwinism
Eugenics movement
New type of scientific racism
Indirect effects
social sciences
Andrew Dixon White
a history of the warfare of science vs religion
Urban Revivalism
moody begins as sunday school teacher
becomes preacher, speaks to huge audiences
assisted by Ira Sankey
tried to reach middle class, but reaches all people
travels in america and england, settles in Chicago
Urban Missions (salvation army)
militant organized out to help
went to live in the city
gain attention on street corners
very effective in urban centers
safe, clean places to live
Temperance movement
Women's chritian temperance union
carrie nation
Parks movement
central park
Gilded Age politics
Republicans don't always hold congress
Parties are less idealogical
politics is about winning and money republicans-anglo-american protestents Democrats-southerners, urbanites, immigrents
PROBLEMS WITH CORRUPTION Grant's legacy tarnished
Spoil System
money to be made in politics because of the lucrative jobs that can be held by winners.
Creates competition between and within parties.
Comes to the forefront after RB Hayes
assasinated by Guiteau who wanted to help the VP. Captured, tried, executed
CA Arthur
not much of a spoilsmen
works for civil service reforms
pendleton civil service act
Women's Sufferage Orgins
AWSA- Lucy Stone, Julia Ward women morally better then men
NWSA- elizabeth katie stanton, Susan B Anthony seneca falls convention
1890 they unite to form NAWSA motivated by women's equality distrust of people in power. Middle class women are joining.
Farmer's troubles
crop prices going down
get less then market value because of middlemen
railroads charge really high rates
The Grange
begins as a social movement
form grain cooperatives
pressure railroads into better rates
doesn't last out of 1870s
The Farmer's alliance
much more willing to get involved with politics
petition states for relief
becomes political party in 1892 (the populist party)
interstate commerse
Economic Policy
bi-metal policy, 1873 economic panic congress issues a law saying no silver as money
Deflation happens, hurts farmers, helps industry
Grover Claveland resists move to bring back silver
Populist Party Election
Runs William Jennings Bryan
campaigns from his front porch
different speeches for different people
Wins handily
steward didn't ask president first
7.1 million dollars
Gold, oil
gets russia off north America
sends troops to Rio Grande
New Government of mexicans
overturned after decade
US as leader
latin american states don't trust us
US flexes muscle, doesn't make friends
kings and queens
protestant missionaries
buisnessmen (pineapple)
american settlers overthrow governments
-turn to US asking to be territory
-1898 becomes territory
Open door policy-John Hay-british backing
reaffirmed in boxer rebellion
chinese nationalists want to kick out all european nationalists
some europeans stuck in beijing
americans send thousands of troops
1850-no contact with outside world
1853-us sends naval fleet (matthew perry) asks to sign trade agreement, denied
tries to intimidate them, trade agreement
Mehegee Restoration-modernization and use of technology
Spanish American War
Cuba is faught over
spanish empire is growing weaker, cuba seen as easy to obtain and add
yellow journalism-sensationalist stories urging war with spain.
US decided to send ship USS Maine into harbor-observer for situation
maine explodes
"Remember the Maine" polititians happy to oblige
Where the navy attacks
puerto rico falls quickly and easily
phillipeans admiral dewey
within an hour spanish fleet gone
fighting in Cuba
messy but quick, army illpreparted and underfunded
many die of tropical diseases
much glory given to Teddy Roosevelt
American Imperialism in Phillipeans
phillipeanos not interested in being americans
aquinaldo-phil leader of insurgency
5-6 years of heavy fighting
Americans decide on continued involvment
Mckinley "uplift americanize, civilize, christianize."
Progressive Politics
see problems but want to preserve or save society
willing to experiment (society as a scientific laberatory)
shift from indv and family to group and state
reality is evolutionary
Education (experiment, experience pushing into a group setting rather then a family or indvidual one
went to columbia teacher college
tied to secularization
people writing articles investigating problems in society, calling for reform
not religious motices
Sinclair "The Jungle"
Progressive reform on local level
want more efficient government
led by galveston texas
gets corruption out of city government
willing to sacrifice democracy of on a local level
State level
wisconsin led by Robert Lafollette developing a government run by experts, lots of regulation, works well with university system
Teddy Roosevelt becomes president after mckinley assasinated
trust buster
hepburn act
ends coal strike
pure food and drug act
meat inspection act
loved the outdoors and conservation
handpicked by roosevelt
progressive president
governs like roosevelt
seen as not supporting progressives in senate
fires Gifford Pinchot
roosevelt and taft competing
Roosevelt and taft competeing
taft chosen
roosevelt creates the progressive party (the bull-moose party)
1912 all three candidates run as progressives
woodrow wilson is also a progressive.
Roosevelt and Progressivism
Equality of opportunity-fair chance & Public service
Graduated taxes
addressing the GAR
Wanted all to have a fair share
Active Government (grow government to strengthen the government
monroe doctrine
Nobel Peace prize
Wilson and Progressivism
The New Credo
limit big gov't
individuals to be empowered
attacks big buissnes
forms the FTC (penalizes big that break law)
passes clayton anti-trust act
pushes the federal reserve active in mexico, carribbean
pancho villa
didn't want to be involved with world affairs
2 New Amendments
16th-leagalized federal income tax
17th- Popular election of senators
Taft and Progressivism
carries on TR's policies
known for his dollar diplomacy
European Background of WWI
1. Population Increase
2. Industrial Development
3. Economic competition and nationalism
4. Militarism
5. Entangling alliance
Franz Ferdinand and wife are assasinated
germany attacks russia through belguim
Triple alliance
Entente Powers
TA- Germany, Austrio Hungary, Ottomon
EP- France, GB, Russia
WWI impact at home
1. increased income taxes
2. Reinstatement of the draft
3. greater organization of industry (The War Industries Board)
4. Propaganda (The Creel Commission)
Entente powers battle victory
Belleau Wood
-well defended by Germans
St. Mihiel
-Americans attack from all sides
-Harry Trueman is there
Meuse-Argonne Forest
League of Nations
Wilson goes to Paris to oversee negotiations
hailed by common people as a hero
treaty very harsh with Germany
US never joins