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101 Cards in this Set

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What are the major controversies in the field of Child Development? (5)
Nature-nurture=debate amoung theorist about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important. Determinants of development and behavior. Nature (genetics) nurture(environment)
What is a theory
an orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior. Framework for research.
What were the historical views on child development
Pre 1600's=miniature adults
16th century=puritan beliefs-medieval-original sin, the evil child
Locke (1632-1704)=tabula rasa
Rousseau (1712-1778)=natural goodness, the innocent child-stages, and maturation
Tabula Rasa
Tabula Rasa
Locke's view of the child as a "blank slate" whose character is shaped by experience.
Natural goodness, the innocent child-stages and maturation
a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory
unconscious forces determine personality and behavior

an approach to personality development introduced by Freud that assumes that children move through a series of stages i which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to leran, to get along with other, and to cope with anxiety.
Pleasure principle
Reality principle
Morality Principle
Erik Erikson
Psychosocial Theory
Psychosocial Theory
Individual development with in the social context

Erikson's theory, which emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality but also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active, contributing members of their society.
Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
a form of learning that involves associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
B.F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
A form of learning in which a spontaneous behavior is followed by a stimulus that achanges the probability that the behavior will occur again
Albert Bandura
Social Learning-->Social-cognitive theory
Social-cognitive Theory
A theory that emphasizes the role of modeling, or observational learning, in the development of behavior. Its most recent revision stresses the importance of thinking in social learning and is called social-cognitive theory
Jean Piaget
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
Cognitive-developmental Theory
Children as active meaning-makers

an approach introduced by Piaget that views children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore the world, views, and cognitive development as taking place in stages.
Lev Vygotsky
Sociocultural Theory
Sociocultural Theory
The importance of social interactions and the transmission of culture

Vygotsky's theory, in which children are assumed to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society
Charles Darwin
Adaptation, survival of the fittest, natural selection, emphasized genetics (nature), innate urges for survival
Konrad Lorenz
Ethological theory
Ethological Theory
behavior is influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, characterized by critical and sensitive periods.
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Bio-ecological theory
Bio-ecological theory
development is a joint function of both person and environment
Stages of development with piaget
4 stages
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
way children understand the world. Learn by acting on the world with their eyes, ears, hands, and mouth

Piaget's first stage, during which infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. Spans the first 2 yers of life
2-7 years
symbols to represent their earlier discoveries

Piaget's second stage, in which rapid growth in representation takes place but thought is not yet logical. Extends from about 2 to 7 years.
Concrete Operational
7-11 years
Reasoning becomes logical organizes objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses. No abstract thinking

Piaget's third stage, during which thought is logical, flexible, and organized in its application to concrete information. extends from about 7 to 11 years
Formal Operational
11 years and older
the capacity for abstract thinking

The capacity for abstraction permits adolescents to reason with symbols that do not refer to objects in the real world, as in advanced mathematics. they can also think of all possible outcomes in a scientific problem, not just the most obvious ones.
sates of development with Freud
5 states
birth-1 year
mouth (thumbsucking)

the new ego directs the baby's sucking activities toward breast or bottle. if oral needs are not met appropriately, the individual may develop such habits as thumb sucking, fingernail biting, and pencil chewing in childhood and overeating and smoking later in life
1-3 years
Find pleasure with sphinxter muscle. Pottytraining takes places in this stage. Independent in control of their poop.

young toddlers and preschoolers enjoy holding and releasing urine and poop. toilet training becomes a major issue between parent and child. If parents insist that children be trained before they are ready or make too few demands, conflicts about anal control may appear in the form of extreme orderliness and cleanliness or messiness and disorder
3-6 years
self pleasrue through masturbation

Id impulses transfer to the genitals, and the child finds pleasure in genital stimulation. Freud's theory that young children feel a sexual desire for the other-sex parent. To avoid punishment, they give up this desire and, instead, adopt the same-sex parent's characteristics and values. As a result, the superego is formed. the relations between id, ego, and superego established at this time determine the individual's basic personality
6-11 years
Id becomes less intense realize that they need to express themselves in acceptible ways

Sexual instincts die down, and the superego develop futher. the child acquires new social values from adults outside the family and from play with same-sex peers.
Mature love and focused on the opposite ses more and more noticed

Puberty causes the sexual impules of the phallic stage to reappear. If development has been successful during earlier stages, it leads to mature sexuality, marriage, and the birth and rearing of children
States of development with Erikson
8 stages
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Identity confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
trust vs. Mistrust (oral)
birth-1 year
From warm, responsive care, infants gain a sense of trust, or confidence, that the world is good. Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort and are handled harshly.
autonomy vs. shame/doubtn(anal)
1-3 years
using new mental and motor skills, children want to choose and decide for themselves. Autonomy is fostered when parents permit reasonable free choice and do not force or shame the child.
Initiative vs. guilt (phallic)
3-6 years
Through make-believe play, children experiment with the kind of person they can become. initiative-a sense of ambition and responsibility-develops when parents support their child's new sense of purpose. The danger is that parents will demand too much self-control, which leads to overcontrol, meaning too much guilt.
Industry vs. Inferiority (Latency)
6-11 years
At school, children develop the capacity to work and cooperate with others. Inferiority develops when negative experiences at home, at school, or with peers lead to feelings of incompetence
Identity vs. Identity confusion (Genital)
The adolescent tries to answer the question, who am i, and what is my place in society? self-chose values and goals lead to a lasting personal identity. The negative outcome is confusion about future adult roles.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Emerging Adulthood
As the quest for identity continues, young people also work on establishing intimate ties to others. Because of earlier disappointments, some individuals cannot form closee relationships and remain isolated.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Generativity means giving to the next generation through child rearing, caring for other people, or productive work. The person who fails in these ways feels an absence of meaningful accomplishment.
Integrity vs. Despair
Old age
In this final stage, individuals reflect on the kind of person they have been. Integrity results from feeling that lefe was worth living as it happend. Old people who are dissatisfied with their lives fear death.
Types of research
Case study/singl subject
Systematic observation
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
A methody in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique values and social processes of a culture or a distinct social group by living with its members and taking field notes for an extended period of time.
a research design in which the investigator randomly assigns participants to 2 or more treatment conditions. Permits inferences about cause and effect.
naturally already assigned
a research design in which the researcher gathers information with out altering participants experiences
Case study/single subject
1 person and gain as much information about 1 individual
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
qualitative-open ended interviews
Systematic Observation
natureal and structured natureal observing in natural habitat
structured laboratory
Dependent Variable
the variable the reseracher expects to be influenced by the independent variable in an experiment
Independent Variable
the variable the researcher expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiement
Child Development
study of patterns of growth, change, and stability that occur from conception through adolescence
Stages of development
Pre-school/early childhood
Middle Childhood
Areas of Development
Environment or settings
Examples: family, school, culture, and neighborhood

urnique combinations of genetic and environmental circumstances that can result in markedly different paths of development
Erogenous zones
A part of the body that excites sexual feelings when touched or stimulated
Structure of Personality
pleasure principle
Reality Principle
Morality Principle
Operant Conditioning
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response
Operant Conditioning
In operant conditioning, a stimulus (removal of a desirable one or presentation of an unpleasant one)that decreases the occurrence of a response
Behavior Modification
Operant Conditioning
Procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
in Piaget's theory, a specific structure, or organized way of making sense of experience, that changes with way
to balance equally
3 main aspects of Information Processing
a changing quality of social support over the course of a teaching session, in which the adult adjusts the assistance provided to fit the child's current level of performance. As competence increases, the adult gradually and sensitively withdraws support, turning over responsibility to the child
In Piaget's theory, the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. Made up of 2 complementary processes: assimilation and accommodation.
Survival of the fittest
those who are eliminated in the struggle for exsisttence are the unfit.
Natural Selection
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates, will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding generations
rapid, innate learning within a critical period
Scientific Method
identify question
Propose hypothesis
Collect data
Analyze data
interrpret/discuss data in light of hypothesis
to define a concept or variable so that it can be measured or express quantitatively
the total number of person inhabiting a country, city, or any district or area.
a small part of anything or one of a number, intended to show the quality, style, or nature of the whole

a subset of a population
Random assignment
an unbiased procedure for assigning participants to treatment groups, such as drawing numbers out of a hat or flipping a coin. Increases the chances that participants' characterristics will be equally distributed across treatment conditions in an experiment
Cross sectional
a research design in which groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time. Distinguished from longitudinal
a research design in which participants are studied repeatedly at different ages. Distinguished from cross=sectional design
a research design with both longitudinal and cross-sectional components in which groups of participants born in different years are followed over time.
the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc...
the process of cell division through which gametes are formed and in which the number of chromosomes in each cell is halved
the process of cell duplication, in which each new cell receives an exact copy of the original chromosome
the newly fertilized cell formed by the union of sperm and ovum at conception
Polygenetic inheritance
a pattern of inheritance in which many genes affect the characteristin in question
the genetic makeup of an individual
the individual's physical and behavioral characteristics, which determined by both genetic and environmental factors.
Genetic Disorder
a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene or by a chromosomal aberration
X-Linked Genes
a pattern of inheritance in which recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome. Males are more likely to be affected.
Quantitative Changes
Qualitative Changes
Niche Picking
a type of genetic-environmental correlation in which individuals actively choose environment that complement their heredity