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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
-nitrogenous base (A,G,C,T)
-deoxyribose sugar
-(a charged) phosphate
The DNA strand is assembled by joining nucleotides together through ... bonds
3'-5' phosphodiester bonds
(DNA backbone)
bond forms between ... of one nucleotide and ... group of adjacent nucleotide
ribose
phosphate
which form of DNA is this?
-classic DNA double helix
-right-handed spiral (clockwise)
-10.5 bp per turn
B-DNA
which form of DNA is this?
-left handed hilix
-12 bp per turn
-zig-zag phosphate backbone, bases at periphery
Z-DNA
Which form of DNA is this?
-right-handed helix
-11 bp per turn
-DNA-RNA hybrids
-double-stranded RNA
A-DNA
DNA supercoiling is mediated by enzymes called ...
topoisomerases
2 functions of chromatin
-to package DNA into a small and neat bundle
-helps to regulate gene expression
core histones are ...
They form an octameric nucleosome and are rich in Arg and Lys (positively charged, so interact with negatively charged DNA phosphate groups)
H2A, H2B, H3, H4
linker histone is ...
It provides entry and exit site for DNA
H1
approximately 50 bp of DNA between each nucleosome is called ...
linker DNA
combinations of modifications of the histone constitute the "..." , used by regulatory proteins to alter gene expression, DNA repair, and chromosomal condensation.
histone code
chromatin can condense even further by winding and stacking itself into a ... configuration.
solenoid
The most highly condensed form of DNA is the ...
chromosome
In the chromosome structure, the ... arm is shorter and the ... arm is longer
P
Q
The ... is important during the process of mitosis and meiosis, ensuring equal partition and division of chromosomes.
centromere
The ends of chromosomes are protected by the presence of ..., repetitive dispensable sequences of DNA.
telomeres
The origin of DNA replication is approximately every ... bp
100,000
In the human karyotype, there are ... chromosomes tota, ... pairs of autosomes, and ... pair of sex chromosomes
46
22
1
Do eukaryotes or prokaryotes have a more compact, highly supercoiled DNA?
prokaryotes