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52 Cards in this Set

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Freud's Psychosexual Stages:
1-Oral
2-Anal
3-Phallic
4-Latency
5-Genital
Oral
Birth-1 year
The new ego directs the baby's sucking activities toward breast or bottle. If oral nees are not meet appropriately, the individual may develop such habits as thumb sucking, fingernail biting, and pencil chewing in childhood and overeating and smoking in later life
Anal
1-3 years
Toddlers and preschoolers enjoy holding releasing urine and feces. Toilet training becomes a major issue between parent and child. If parents insist that children be trained before they are ready, or if they make too few demands, conflicts about anal control may appear in the form of extreme orderliness and cleanliness or messiness and disorder
Phallic
3-6 years
As preschoolers take pleasure in genital stimulation, Freu's Oedipus conflict for boys and Electra conflict for girls arise. Children feel a sexual desire and adopt the same-sex parent's characteristics and values. As a result, the superego is formed, and children feel guilty each time they violate its standards
Latency
6-11 years
Sexual instincts die down, and the superego develops futher. The child acquires new social values from adults and same-sex peers outside the family
Genital
Adolescence
With puberty, the sexual impulses of the phallic stage reappear. If development has been successful during earlier stages, it leads to marriage, mature sexuality, and the birth and rearing of children. This stage extends through adulthood
Erikson's Psychosocial stages, with corresponding Psychosexual stages
1-Basic trust vs. Mistrust (Oral)
2-Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (Anal)
3-Initiative vs. Guild (Phallic)
4-Industry vs. inferiority (Latency)
5-Identity vs. role confusion (Genital)
6-Intimacy vs. isolation
7-generativity vs. stagnation
8-Integrity vs. despair
Basic Trust vs. Mistrust
(oral)
Birth-1 year
From warm, responsive care, infants gain a sense of trust, or confidence, that the world is good. Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort and are handled harshly
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
(Anal)
1-3 years
using new mental and motor skills, children want to choose and decide for themselves. Autonomy is fostered when parents permit reasonable free choice and do not force or shame the child
Initiative vs. Guilt
(phallic)
3-6 years
Through make-believe play, children experiment with the kind of person they can become. Initiative-a sense of ambition and responsibility-develops when parents support their child's new sense of purpose. The danger is that parents will demand too much self-control, which leads to overcontrol, meaning too much guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
(Latency)
6-11 years
At school, children develop the capacity to work and cooperate with others. Inferiority develops when negative experiences at home, at school, or with peers lead to feelings of incompetence
Identity vs. Role Confusion
(Genital)
Adolescence
The adolescent tries to answer the questions, Whom am I, and what is my place in society? By exploring values and vocational goals, the young person forms a personal identity. The negative outcome is confusion about future adult roles.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Emerging Adulthood
As teh quest for identity continues, young people also work on establishing intimate ties to others. Because of earlier disappointments, some individuals cannot form close relationships and remain isolated.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Adulthood
Generativity means giving to the next generation through child rearing, caring for other people, or productive work. The person who fails in these ways feels an absence of meaningful accomplishment
Integrity vs despair
Old Age
In this final stage, individuals reflect on the kind of person they have been. Integrity results from feeling that life was worth living as it happened. Old people who are dissatisfied with their lives fear death.
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Sensorimotor
Birth-2 Years
Infants "think" by acting on the world with their eyes, ears, hands, and mouth. As a result they invent ways of solving sensorimotor problems, such as pulling a lever to hear the sound of a music box, finding hidden toys, and putting objects in and taking them out of containers
Preoperational
2-7 Years
Preschool children use symbols to represent their earlier sensorimotor discoveries. Development of language and make-believe play takes place. However, thinking lacks the logic of the two remaining stages.
Concrete Operational
7-11 Years
Children's reasoning becomes logical. School-age children understand that a certain amount of lemonade or play dough remains the same even after its apperance changes. They also organize objects into hierarchies of classes and subclasses. However, thinking falls short of adult intelligence. It is not yet abstract.
Formal Operational
11 Years On
The capacity for abstract, systematic thinking enables adolescents, when faced with a problem, to start with a hypothesis, deduce testable inferences, and isolate and combine variables to see which inferences are confirmed. Adolescents can also evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances.
Structure of the environment in ecological Systems Theory
Microsystem
Mesosystem
Exosystem
Macrosystem
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Discontinuous: Pyschosexual and psychosocial development takes place in stages. One Course: stages are assumed to be universal. Both nature and nurture: Innate impulses are channeled and controlled through child-rearing experiences. Early experiences set the course of later development
Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINOUS DEVELOPMENT:
Continuous: Development involves an increase in learned behaviors.
ONE COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT OR MANY?
Many Possible courses: Behaviors reinforced and modeled may vary from child to child.
NATURE OR NURTURE AS MORE IMPORTANT?
Emphasis or nurture: Development results from conditioning and modeling. Both early and later experiences are important
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT?
Discontinuous: Cognitive development takes place in stages.
ONE COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT OR MANY?
One course: stages are assumed to be universal.
NATURE OR NURTURE AS MORE IMPORTANT?
Both nature and nurture: Development occurs as the brain matures and children exercise their innate drive to discover reality in a generally stimulating environment. Bot early and later experiences are important
Information processing
CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT?
Continuous: children generally improve in perception, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills.
ONE COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT OR MANY?
One course: Changes studied characterize most or all children.
NATUTRE OR NURTURE AS MORE IMPORTANT?
Both nature and nurture: children are active, sense-making beings who modify their thinking as the brain matures and they confront new environmental demands. Both early and later experiences are important
Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT?
both continuous and
discontinuous: children gradually develop a wider range of adaptive behaviors. Sensitive periods occur, in which qualitatively distinct capacities emerge fairly suddenly.
ONE COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT OR MANY?
One course: adaptive behaviors and sensitive periods apply to all members of a species.
NATURE OR NURTURE AS MORE IMPORTANT?
Both nature and nurture: evolution and heredity influence behavior, and learning lends greater flexibility and adaptiveness to it. In sensitive periods, early experiences set the course of later development
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT?
Not Specified.
ONE COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT OR MANY?
Many possible courses: children's characteristics join with environmental forces at multiple levels to mold development in unique ways.
NATURE OR NURTURE AS MORE IMPORTANT?
Both nature and nurture: Heredity, brain growth, and dialogues with more expert members of society jointly contribute to development. Both early and later experiences are important
Dynamic Systems Perspective
CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINUOUS DEVELOPMENT?
Both Continuous and Discontinous: Change is the system is always ongoing. Stagelike transformations occur as children reorganize their behavior so components of the system work as a functioning whole.
ONE COURSE OF DEVELOPMENT OR MANY?
Many possible courses: biological makeup, everyday tasks, and social experiences vary, yielding wide individual differences in specific skills.
NATURE OR NURTURE AS MORE IMPORTANT?
Both nature and nurture: the child's mind, body, and physical and social surroundings form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. Both early and later experiences are important.
Systematic Observation
Naturalistic Observation
Structured Observation
Self-Reports
Clinical Interview
structured interview, questionnaires, and tests
Naturalistic Observation
DESCRIPTION
Observation of behavior in natural contexts.
STRENGTHS
reflects participants; everyday behaviors
LIMITATIONS
cannot control conditions under which participants are observed
Structured Observation
DESCRIPTION
observation of behavior in a laboratory, where conditions are the same for all participants
STRENGTHS
Grants each participant an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest. Permits study of behaviors rarely seen in everyday life.
LIMITATIONS
May not yield observations typical of participants' behavior in everyday life
Clinical Interview
DESCRIPTION
flexible interviewing procedure in which the investigator obtains a complete account of the participant's thoughts.
STRENGTHS
comes as close as possible to the way participants think in everyday life. Great breadth and depth of information can be obtained in a short time.
LIMITATIONS
may not result in accurate reporting of information. Flexible procedure makes comparing individuals' responses difficult
Structured Interview, Questionnaires, and Tests
DESCRIPTION
Self-report instruments in which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way.
STRENGTHS
permits comparisons of participants' responses and efficient data collection. Researchers can specify answer alternatives that participants might not think of in an open-ended interview
LIMITATIONS
Does not yield the same depth of information as a clinical interview. Responses are still subject to inaccurate reporting
Clinical, or Case Study, Method
DESCRIPTION
a full picture of a single individual's psychological functioning, obtained by combining interviews, observations, and sometimes test scores
STRENGTHS
provides rich, descriptive insights into processes of development.
LIMITATIONS
may be biased by reserachers' theoretical preferences. Findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant
Ethnography
DESCRIPTION
participant observation of a culture or distinct social group. By making extensive field notes, the researcher tries to capture the culture's unique values and social processes.
STRENGTHS
provides a more complete and accurate description than can be derived from a single observational visit, interview, or questionnaire.
LIMITATIONS
may be biased by researcher's values and theoretical preferences. Findings cannot be applied to individuals and settings other than the ones studied.
Research Designs
General
Developmental
General
Correlational
Experimental
Developmental
Longitudinal
Cross-sectional
Sequential design
Microgenetic design
Correlational
DESCRIPTION
the investigator obtains information on participants without altering their experiences
STRENGTHS
permits study of relationship between variables
LIMITATIONS
does not permit inferences about cause-and-effect relationships
Experimental
DESCRIPTION
the investigator manipulates an independent variable and looks at its effect on a dependent variable; can be conducted in the laboratory or in the natural environment.
STRENGTHS
Permits inferences about cause-and-effect relationships
LIMITATIONS
when conducted in the laboratory, findings may not apply to the real world. When conducted in the field, control is usually weaker, and results may be due to variables other than the treatment
Longitudinal
DESCRIPTION
the investigator studies the same group of participants repeatedly at different ages
STRENGTHS
permits study of common patterns and individual differences in development and relationships between early and later events and behaviors
LIMITATIONS
age-related changes may be distorted because of dropout and test-wiseness of participants and because of cohort effects
Cross-Sectional
DESCRIPTION
the investigator studies groups of participants differing in age at the same point in time
STRENGTHS
more efficient than the longitudinal design
LIMITATIONS
does not permit study of individual developmental trends. Age differences may be distorted because of cohort effects
Sequential Design
DESCRIPTION
the investigator follows a sequences of samples (two or more age groups), collecting data on them at the same points in time.
STRENGTHS
permits both longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons. Reveals cohort effects. Permits tracking of age-related changes more efficiently than the longitudinal design.
LIMITATIONS
may have the same problems as longitudinal and cross-sectional stragegies, but the design itself helps identify difficulties
Microgenetic Design
DESCRIPTION
the investigator presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions
STRENGTHS
offers insights into the process of development
LIMITATIONS
requires intensive study of participants' moment-by-moment behaviors. The time required for participants to change is difficult to anticipate. Practice effects may distort developmental trends.
Protection from harm
Children have the right to be protected from physical or psychological harm i research. If in doubt about the harmful effects of research, investigators should seek the opinion of otherrs. When harm seems possible, investigators should find other means for obtaining the desired information or abandon the research
Informed Consent
All research participants, including children, have the right to have explained to them, in language appropriate to their level of understanding, all aspects of the research that may affect their willingness to participate. When children are participants, informed consent of parents as well as others who act on the child's behalf (such as school officials) should be obtained, preferably in writing. Children, and the adults responsible for them, have the right to discontinue participation in the research at any time.
Privacy
Children have the right to concealment of their identity on all information collected in the course of research. They also have the right with respect to written reports and any informal discussions about the research
Knowledge of Results
Children have the right to be informed of the results of research in language that is appropriate to their level of understanding
Beneficial Treatments
If experimental treatments believed to be beneficial are under investigation, children in control groups have the right to alternative beneficial treatments if they are available.
Maternal Factors Linked to Fraternal Twinning
Ethnicity
Family History of Twinning
Age
Nutrition
Number of Births
Season and Geographic Region
Fertility Drugs and in vitrol Fertilization
Ethnicity
Occurs in 4 per 1,000 births among Asians, 8 per 1,000 births among whites, 12 to 16 per 1,000 births among blacks