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32 Cards in this Set

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Nutrient Density
a measure of nutrients provided per calories of food
Vegetarians
people who exclude from their diets animal flesh and possibly other animal products such as milk, cheese, and eggs
Omnivores
people who eat foods of both plant and animal origin, including animal flesh
Ethnic Foods
foods associated with particular cultural subgroups within a population
Foodways
the sum of a culture's habits, customs, beliefs, and preferences concerning food
Cuisines
styles of cooking
Legumes
beans, peas, and lentils, valued as inexpensive sources of protein, vitamins,minerals, and fiber that contribute little fat to the diet
Variety
the dietary characteristic of providing a wide selection of foods-the opposite of monotony
Moderation
the dietary characteristic of providing constituents within set limits, not to excess
Calorie Control
control of energy intake; a feature of a sound diet plan
Balance
the dietary characteristic of providing foods of a number of types in proportion to each other,such tha tfoods rich in some nutrients do not crowd out of the diet foods that are rich in other nutrients
Adequacy
the dietary characteristic of providing all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight
Phytochemicals
nonnutrient compounds in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body
Nonnutrients
a term used in this book to mean compounds other than the six nutrients that are present in foods and have biological activity in the body
elemental Diets
diets composed of purified ingredients of known chemical composition; intended to supply all essential nutrients to people who cannot eat foods
Dietary Supplements
pills,liquids, or powders that contain purified nutrients or other ingredients
Grams
units of weight. A gram is the weight of a cubic centimeter or milliliter of water under defined conditions of temperature and pressure. About 28 grams equal an ounce
Calories
units of energy. Strictly speaking, the unit used to measure the energy in foods is a kilocalorie: it is the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water 1 degree celsius.
Essential Nutrients
the nutrients the body cannot make for itself (or cannot make fast enough) from other raw materials; nutrients that must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies
Energy-Yielding nutrients
the nutrients the body can use for energy. They may also supply building blocks for body structures
Organic
carbon containing. Four of the six classes nutrients are organic: carbohydrate, fat, protein, and vitamins. Strictly speaking, organic compounds include only those made by living things and do not include carbon dioxide and few carbon salts
Energy
the capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy; it can be converted to mechanical, electrical, heat, or other forms of energy in the body. Food energy is measured in calories
Nutritional Genomics
the science ofhow nutrients affect the activities of geners and how genes affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients
Genes
units of a cell's inheritance, made of the chemical DNA. Each gene directs the making of one or more proteins, which perform important tasks in the body
DNA
an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that encodes genetic information in its structure
Genome
the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell. The study of genomes in genomics
Chronic Diseases
long-duration degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of the body organs. Examples include heart disease, cancer, and diabetes
malnutrition
any condition caused by excess of deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients. Nutrient or energy deficiencies are classed as forms of undernutrition; nutrient or energy excesses are classed as forms of overnutrition
Nutrients
components of food that are indispensable to the body's functioning. They provide energy, serve as building material, help maintain or repair body parts, and support growth. The nutrients include water, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals
Diet
the foods (including beverages) a person usually eats and drinks
Nutrition
the study of the nutrients in foods and in the body; sometimes also the study of human behaviors related to food
Food
medically, any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and to grow; the carrier of nourishment; socially, a more limited number of such substances defines as acceptable by each culture.