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18 Cards in this Set

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Cardinal Richelieu
Became Secretary of State in 1616. later went on to becom cardinal in 1622. Often referred to as King Louis the XIII Chief minister.
The Fronde
The a civil war in France 1648-1653 seperated in two different campaigns the fronde of the Parlements and the fronde of the nobles. the original reason for the insurrection was to protect the rights of parliment. and parliment to limit the kings power
Peter the Great
Russian Tsar Who ruled starting in 1682. Ruled together with his half brother Ivan under there sister sofia. He made several changes in Russia for which he is remembered for today. He organized a regular Russian Army.
Parliament
a legislature, a meeting of people to discuss matters. The Supreme legislative body in the UK. Includes the house of commons and house of Lords. The UK is sometimes called the mother of parliaments
Glorious Revolution
Revolution of 1688. the overthrow of James II by parliament. Marked the end of absolute power by English kings and the start of Parliamentary democracy.
Treaty of Utrecht
The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document, comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. Concluded between various European states, it helped end the War of the Spanish Succession.

The treaties were concluded between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and Philip V of Spain on the one hand, and of Queen Anne of Great Britain, the Duke of Savoy, and the United Provinces on the other.
Levellers
The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political movement, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars. They were not a political party in the modern sense of the word, so people who historians have labeled as Levellers did not subscribe to a specific party manifesto, nevertheless many Levellers agreed with the view expressed in the Agreement of the People. Leveller views and support was to be found in the populace of the City of London and in some regiments in the New Model Army (Army). The Levellers came to prominence at the end of the First English Civil War and were most influential before the start of the Second Civil War. After Pride's Purge and the execution of Charles I, power lay in the hands of the Grandees in the Army, (and to a lesser extent with the Rump Parliament). The Levellers along with all other opposition groups were marginalized by those in power and their influence waned. By 1650 they were no longer a serious threat to the established order.
Habsburgs
Habsburg (in English sometimes written "Hapsburg") and the successor family, Habsburg-Lorraine, were important ruling houses of Europe and are best known as the ruling Houses of Austria (and the Austrian Empire) for over six centuries.
Hohenzollerns
The House of Hohenzollern is a family dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. The family uses the motto Nihil sine Deo ("nothing without God"). The family crest, first adopted in 1192, began as a simple shield with four silver and black quarters in the form of a saltire. The head and shoulders of a hound were added in 1317 by Frederick IV.[1] Later quartering incorporated other branches of the family.
Bourbons
The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples & Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs.

Bourbon monarchs ruled Navarre (from 1555) and France (from 1589) until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown.
Prussia
Prussia attained its greatest importance in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century, it became a great European power under the reign of Frederick II of Prussia (1740–86). During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck pursued a policy of uniting the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany" which would exclude the Austrian Empire.
Seven Years War
A war fought primarily between France and Britain. from 1754 and 1756-1763. it also involved the other major powers of europe. the main result was france losing colonial power in the americas and the dominant colonial power.
Philosophes
Any of the leading philosophical, political, and social writers of the 18th-century French Enlightenment.
Deism
Deism is a belief in God as revealed by nature and reason, not scripture and faith. Deism is a free-thought philosophy, much like Agnosticism, Atheism or Pantheism in that it rejects the dogmas and superstitions of religion in favor of individual reason and empirical observation of the universe. The Deist sees an order and architecture to the universe that indicates an Intelligent Creator or First Cause
Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. His output of over 600 compositions includes works widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Mozart is among the most enduringly popular of European composers and many of his works are part of the standard concert repertoire. He is generally considered to be one of the greatest composers of classical music.
Catherine the Great
sometimes referred to as an epitome of the "enlightened despot" — reigned as Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 until her death. She thus ruled for 34 years — the longest reign in Russia after the establishment of the Russian Empire in 1721. She lived for 67 years, longer than any Russian emperor; and longer than any Russian monarch since Grand Prince Vladimir Monomakh of Kievan Rus, who died in 1125 aged 72.
Estates General
A legislative body of different classes of French Subjects. similar to parliament in England.
Bastille
The Bastille built in 1370 to 1383 originally for political and religious prisoners. it became famous for the storming of it on July 14, 1789, in order to supply the revolution with arms.