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92 Cards in this Set

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WHAT ARE THE 9 GENERAL FIRST AID RULES?
GET ORGANIZED
MAKE PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
CHECK FOR ABCs
CHECK FOR FRACTURES
REMOVE CLOTHING TO EXPOSE INJURY
MAKE PATIENT COMFORTABLE
DON'T TOUCH OPEN WOUNDS
POSITION PATIENT ON SIDE OR BACK
CARRY PATIENT FEET FIRST
TRIAGE IS THE FRENCH WORD FOR WHAT?
TO SORT.
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF TRIAGE?
TO QUICKLY ASSESS PATIENTS AND ASSIGN A PRIORITY FOR TREATMENT.
WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF TRIAGE?
TACTICAL AND NONTACTICAL.
WHAT IS A CLASS 1 FOR TACTICAL?
MINOR INJURIES THAT CAN BE TREATED IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME.
WHAT IS A CLASS 2 FOR TACTICAL?
INJURIES WHICH REQUIRE IMMEDIATE LIFE SUSTAINING MEASURES OR MODERATE IN NATURE.
WHAT IS A CLASS 3 FOR TACTICAL?
INJURIES WHICH CAN DELAYED WITHOUT LOSS OF LIFE OR LIMB.
WHAT IS A CLASS 4 FOR TACTICAL?
INJURIES THAT REQUIRE EXTENSIVE TREATMENT.
WHAT IS PRIORITY 1 FOR NONTACTICAL?
ANY CORRECTABLE LIFE THREATENING ILLNESS OR INJURIES.
WHAT IS PRIORITY 2 FOR NONTACTICAL?
SERIOUS BUT NON LIFE THREATENING ILLNESS OR INJURIES.
WHAT IS PRIORITY 3 FOR NONTACTICAL?
MINOR INJURIES, SIMPLE FRACTURES OR MODERATE BURNS.
WHAT IS PRIORITY 4 FOR NONTACTICAL?
PATIENTS WHO ARE DEAD OR FATALLY INJURED.
WHAT IS A PRIMARY SURVEY?
A RAPID INITIAL ASSESSMENT TO DETECT AND TREAT LIFE THREATENING CONDITIONS.
WHAT IS A SECONDARY SURVEY?
A COMPLETE AND DETAILED ASSESSMENT INCLUDING A SOAP NOTE, VITAL SIGNS AND HEAD TO TOE SURVEY.
WHAT DOES ABCDE STAND FOR?
A- AIRWAY
B- BREATHING
C- CIRCULATION
D- DISABILITY
E- EXPOSE
TRUE OR FALSE?

BRAIN DAMAGE CAN OCCUR WITHIN 4-6 MINUTES?
TRUE.
TRUE OR FALSE?

CELL DAMAGE CAN OCCUR IN 10 MINUTES?
TRUE.
AFTER YOU COMPLETE ABCDE WHAT IS NEXT?
MAKING A STATUS DECISION AND ARRANGING TRANSPORTATION.
ABCDE, STATUS AND TRANSPORTATION DECISIONS SHOULD BE MADE WITHIN HOW MANY MINUTES UPON ARRIVAL?
10 MINUTES.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF SHOCK?
GLASSY EYES, DILATED PUPILS, LABORED BREATHING, COOL PALE SKIN, RAPID PULSE, LOWERED BP.
WHAT ARE SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK?
NAUSEA, VOMITING, DRYNESS OF MOUTH, COMPLAINTS OF THIRST,
KIDNEYS MAY SHUT DOWN, FAINTING.
WHEN SHOULD YOU TREAT FOR SHOCK?
START TREATMENT BEFORE SYMPTOMS DEVELOP.
WHAT ARE 3 WAYS TO CONTROL HEMORRHAGE?
PRESSURE DRESSING
PRESSURE POINTS
TOURNIQUET
DEFINE PRESSURE DRESSING?
A COMPRESS TO THE WOUND.
DEFINE PRESSURE POINT?
WHERE THE MAIN ARTERY LIES OVER THE BONE.
HOW MANY PRINCIPAL PRESSURE POINTS ARE ON ONE SIDE OF THE BODY?
11
HOW MANY PRINCIPAL PRESSURE POINTS DO YOU HAVE OVERALL?
22
TRUE OR FALSE?

DIGITAL PRESSURE CAN SELDOM BE MAINTAINED FOR MORE THAN 15 MINUTES?
TRUE
WHAT IS A TOURNIQUET?
A CONSTRICTING BAND USED TO CUT SUPPLY OF BLOOD.
WHERE DO YOU PLACE A TOURNIQUET ON A WOUND?
ABOVE THE WOUND AND AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE.
TRUE OR FALSE?

A TOURNIQUET MUST BE TIGHT ENOUGH TO STOP ARTERIAL BLOOD FLOW TO THE LIMB?
TRUE
WHAT IS THE TREATMENT FOR HEAD WOUNDS?
NO MEDICATION,LAY VICTIM FLAT,
TURN VICTIM ON SIDE, WATCH FOR VOMITING, DON'T USE DIRECT PRESSURE IF THERE IS A SKULL FRACTURE.
HOW DO YOU TREAT FACIAL WOUNDS?
MAKE SURE AIRWAY IS NOT BLOCKED
POSITION PATIENT SO BLOOD WILL DRAIN OUT
DON'T REMOVE ANY EMBEDDED OBJECTS
APPLY STERILE COMPRESS TO BOTH EYES
KEEP VICTIM LYING DOWN
USE STRECHER FOR TRANSPORT
HOW DO YOU TREAT A SUCKING CHEST WOUND?
SEAL WOUND WITH AN AIRTIGHT MATERIAL AND TAPE IN PLACE
GIVE VICTIM OXYGEN
PLACE IN SEMI-FOWLERS POSITION
WATCH FOR SIGNS OF SHOCK
DON'T GIVE ANYTHING TO DRINK
TRANSPORT IMMEDIATELY
HOW DO YOU TREAT AN ABDOMINAL WOUND?
PLACE PATIENT IN SUPINE POSITION WITH KNEES UP
DON'T PUT INTESTINE BACK IN
IF BLEEDING APPLY DIRECT PRESSURE
IF INTESTINES NOT EXPOSED APPLY DRY STERILE DRESSING
IF INTESTINES ARE EXPOSED APPLY A MOISTENED STERILE COMPRESS
TREAT FOR SHOCK
DON'T GIVE ANYTHING TO DRINK
START AN IV LINE
WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF FRACTURES?
OPEN AND CLOSED.
WHAT IS A CLOSED FRACTURE?
THE BONE IS BROKEN BUT NO BREAK IN THE SKIN.
WHAT IS AN OPEN FRACTURE?
AN OPEN WOUND IN THE TISSUE AND SKIN.
WHAT ARE THE TWO LONG BONES IN THE FOREARM?
THE RADIUS AND THE ULNA.
HOW DO YOU TREAT A FOREARM FRACTURE?
APPLY A PNEUMATIC SPLINT OR 2 WELL PADDED SPLINTS AND PLACE ACROSS THE CHEST 4 INCHES ABOVE ELBOW LEVEL. TREAT FOR SHOCK AND EVACUATE ASAP.
HOW DO YOU TREAT AN UPPER ARM FRACTURE?
APPLY PADDING IN ARMPIT, PLACE ARM IN A SLING, TREAT FOR SHOCK, SEND TO MEDICAL OFFICER ASAP. DON'T ATTEMPT TO STRAIGHTEN ARM OUT BECAUSE IT MAY CAUSE MORE DAMAGE.
WHAT IS THE LONG BONE BETWEEN THE KNEE CAP AND PELVIS?
THE FEMUR.
HOW DO YOU TREAT A THIGH FRACTURE?
CAREFULLY STRAIGHTEN LEG AND APPLY 2 SPLINTS OR USE A HARE/THOMAS HALF-RING TRACTION SPLINTS. DON'T MOVE PATIENT UNTIL LEG HAS BEEN IMMOBILIZED, TREAT FOR SHOCK AND TRANSPORT ASAP.
THE SPLINT SHOULD BE FASTENED IN HOW MANY PLACES ON A THIGH FRACTURE?
5- AROUND THE ANKLE, OVER THE KNEE, BELOW THE HIP, AROUND THE PELVIS AND BELOW THE ARMPIT.
HOW DO YOU TREAT A LOWER LEG FRACTURE?
CAREFULLY STRAIGHTEN LEG APPLY PNEUMATIC SPLINT OR THREE PADDED SPLINTS(BOTH SIDES AND BELOW), TREAT FOR SHOCK AND TRANSPORT ASAP. IF AVALIABLE USE A HARE/THOMAS HALF-RING TRACTION SPLINT.
HOW DO YOU TREAT A CLAVICLE FRACTURE?
APPLY A SLING AND SWATHE AND PLACE FOREARM ON CHEST 4 INCHES ABOVE ELBOW LEVEL. TREAT FOR SHOCK AND TRANSPORT ASAP.
HOW DO YOU TREAT A RIB FRACTURE?
MAKE PATIENT COMFORTABLE, APPLY A SWATHE ON INJURED SIDE AND PLACE ARM AGAINST CHEST WITH FOREARM RAISED AT 45* ANGLE. TREAT FOR SHOCK AND EVACUATE ASAP.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF A RIB FRACTURE?
PAIN LOCALIZED AT THE SITE OF THE FRACTURE. THERE MAY OR MAY NOT BE RIB DEFORMITY, CHEST WALL CONTUSSION OR LACERATION OF THE AREA.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF A CLAVICLE FRACTURE?
INJURED SHOULDER IS USUALLY LOWER THAN THE OTHER AND UNABLE TO RAISE ARM ABOVE SHOULDER LEVEL.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF A LOWER LEG FRACTURE?
WHEN BOTH BONES ARE BROKEN SIGNS OF A FRACTURE ARE PRESENT, WHEN ONLY ONE BONE IS BROKEN THE OTHER BONE ACTS AS A SPLINT AND PREVENTS DEFORMITY OF THE LEG.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF A THIGH FRACTURE?
IT HAS A WOBBY MOTION, ASSUMES AN UNNATURAL POSITION AND INJURED LEG IS USUALLY SHORTER THAN THE OTHER.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF AN UPPER ARM FRACTURE?
PAIN, TENDERNESS, SWELLING AND WOBBLY MOTION AT POINT OF THE FRACTURE.
WHAT ARE SIGNS OF A FOREARM FRACTURE?
WHEN BOTH BONES ARE BROKEN THE ARM APPEARS DEFORMED. WHEN ONLY ONE IS BROKEN THE OTHER ACTS AS A SPLINT. PAIN, TENDERNESS, INABILITY TO USE ARM AND WOBBLY MOTION.
TRUE OR FALSE?

BURNS AND SCALDS ARE ESSENTIALLY THE SAME INJURY?
TRUE.
BURNS ARE CAUSED BY WHAT?
DRY HEAT.
SCALDS ARE CAUSED BY WHAT?
MOIST HEAT.
TRUE BURNS ARE GENERATED BY WHAT?
EXPOSURE TO EXTREME HEAT.
HOW MANY DIFFERENT DEGREE BURNS ARE THERE?
3
WHAT IS A FIRST DEGREE BURN?
EPIDERMAL LAYER IS IRRITATED, REDDENED AND TINGLING. THERE IS MILD PAIN AND EDEMA.
WHAT IS A SECOND DEGREE BURN?
EPIDERMAL BLISTERS, MOTTLED APPEARANCE AND RED BASE. PAINFUL, EDEMA AND POSSIBLE FLUID LOSS AT SURFACE.
WHAT IS A THIRD DEGREE BURN?
FULL THICKNESS INJURY PENETRATING INTO MUSCLE AND OR DOWN TO THE BONE. TISSUE AND NERVES DESTROYED, SHOCK WITH BLOOD IN URINE, PAIN IS ABSENT AND POSSIBLE LOSS OF FUNCTION.
HOW DO YOU TREAT A BURN?
MAINTAIN AIRWAY
CONTROL HEMORRHAGE AND TREAT FOR SHOCK
REMOVE RESTRICTIVE ARTICLES OF CLOTHING
OVER 20% BSA START IV THERAPY
ASPRIN
COOL WET COMPRESSES
UNDER 20% BSA USE ICE WATER IMMERSION
MORPHINE OR DEMEROL FOR SEVERE PAIN
SILVADENE OVER THE BURN AREA
WHAT ARE HEAT CRAMPS?
AN EARLY SIGN OF HEAT EXHAUSTION.
HOW DO YOU TREAT HEAT CRAMPS?
COOL WATER W/ SALT
MASSAGE CRAMP
WHAT ARE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HEAT EXHAUSTION?
COOL MOIST CLAMMY SKIN
PUPILS DILATED
WEAK PULSE
RAPID OR SHALLOW BREATHING
HOW DO YOU TREAT HEAT EXHAUSTION?
MOVE TO COOL AREA
APPLY WET CLOTHS IN GROIN NECK AND ARMPITS
COOL WATER W/ SALT OR IV INFUSION
WHAT IS THE MORTALITY RATE FOR HEAT STROKE?
20%
WHAT IS HEAT STROKE?
CONSISTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE
BREAKDOWN OF SWEATING MECHANISM
UNABILITY TO ELIMINATE EXCESSIVE BODY HEAT
POSSIBLE DAMAGE TO BRAIN, KIDNEYS AND LIVER.
HOW DO YOU TREAT HEAT STROKE?
MOVE PATIENT TO COOL AREA
APPLY WET CLOTHS TO THE WHOLE BODY OR COOL WATER BATH
DISCONTINUE COOLING ONCE RECTAL TEMP REACHES 102*
START IV LINE TO REPLACE FLUIDS.
WHAT IS HYPOTHERMIA?
GENERAL COOLING OF THE WHOLE BODY CAUSED BY CONTINUED EXPOSURE TO LOW TEMPERATURES.
HOW DO YOU IMPROVISE A LITTER TO CARRY A CASUALTY?
A PONCHO AND POLES
POLES WITH JACKETS
POLES THROUGH SACKS
ROLLING A BLANKET
WHATS THE SIZE OF A CAT HOLE?
1 FOOT WIDE 1 FOOT DEEP.
WHATS THE SIZE OF A STRADDLE TRENCH?
4 FOOT LONG 2 1/2 FEET DEEP AND 1 FOOT WIDE.
WHEN DO YOU USE A CAT HOLE?
WHEN ON THE MARCH.
WHEN DO YOU DIG A STRADDLE TRENCH?
FOR 1-3 DAY BIVOUAC SITES.
HOW LONG MUST WATER BE HELD AT A ROLLING BOIL?
AT LEAST 15 SECONDS.
WHAT CAN YOU USE TO PURIFY WATER IN THE FIELD?
IODINE TABLETS
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE
HOW MANY IODINE TABLETS DO YOU PUT IN CLEAN WATER?
1
HOW MANY IODINE TABLETS DO YOU PUT IN CLOUDY WATER?
2
HOW DO YOU USE IODINE TABLETS?
PUT TABLETS IN AND WAIT 5 MINUTES
SHAKE CANTEEN
LOOSEN CAP AND TIP TO ALLOW LEAKAGE
TIGHTEN CAP AND WAIT 25 MINUTES BEFORE DRINKING.
HOW DO YOU USE CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE?
FILL CANTEEN LEAVING 1 INCH AIRSPACE
FILL CANTEEN CUP HALF FULL OF WATER AND ADD CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE
ADD MIXTURE TO CANTEEN AND SHAKE
LOOSEN CAP AND LET WATER LEAK ON THREAD
TIGHTEN CAP AND WAIT 30 MINUTES BEFORE USE.
IN HYPOTHERMIA DEATH RESULTS AS THE CORE TEMPERATURE REACHES WHAT TEMP?
8F.
WHAT IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY OF WARMING A PATIENT?
IN A TUB OF WARM WATER.
WHAT ARE OTHER METHODS OF WARMING PATIENT?
BUDDY WARMING
WARM LIQUIDS TO DRINK
REMOVING WET CLOTHING
WHAT IS IMMERSION FOOT?
PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO WET COLD TEMPERATURES.
WHAT IS THE TEMPERATURE OF THE TUB OF WARM WATER?
100-105F
WHAT TEMP DOES IMMERSION FOOT OCCUR?
FREEZING TO 5F.
WHAT TEMP DOES FROSTBITE OCCUR?
EXPOSURE TO 32F OR LOWER.
WHAT IS FROSTBITE?
WHEN ICE CRYSTALS FORM IN THE SKIN OR DEEPER TISSUES.
WHAT IS SUPERFICIAL FROSTBITE?
THE SURFACE OF THE SKIN WILL FEEL HARD WHILE THE UNDERLYING TISSUE IS SOFT.
WHAT IS DEEP FROSTBITE?
THERE ARE ICE CRYSTALS IN THE ENTIRETHICKNESS OF THE EXTREMITY AND SKIN WILL NOT MOVE OVER BONY RIDGES.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARRIES?
FIREMANS CARRY
ONE MAN SUPPORT CARRY
ONE MAN ARMS CARRY
SADDLEBACK CARRY
PACKSTRAP CARRY
PISTOL BELT CARRY