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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abiotic factors
non-living
anthropocentric
human centered; views the environment as a resource for humans
atom
the basic subunit of elements; protons neutrons and electrons
bethnic
organisms that live on the bottom of marine and freshwater ecosystems
biocentric
life centered; states that all living things have the right to live
biomass
any accumulation of organic material produced by living things
biome
plant and animal community that covers a large geographic area
biotic factors
living things
biotic potential
reproductive capacity
birthrate
number of individuals born per thousand individuals in a population per year
black lung disease
respiratory condition resulting from the accumulation of large amounts of fine coal particles in miners' lungs
carcinogens
cancer causing agents
carnivore
eats meat
carrying capacity
optimum number of individuals that can be supported in an area over an extended period of time
catalyst
starts a chain reaction but it doesnt change
climax community
last stage of succession; relatively stable long lasting interrelated community
coevolution
two or more species that effect the evolutionary direction of the other
commensalisms
one organism benefits which the other is not affected
community
interacting groups of different species
competition
when both organisms require the same resource which results in harming both
compound
kind of matter composed of two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together
death phase
phase in succession where the population is declining
death rate
number of deathers per thousand individuals in the population per year
demand
amount of product that consumers are willing and able to buy at various prices
detritus
tiny particles of organic material that result from fecal waste material or the decomposition of plants and animals
dispersal
migration of organisms from a concentrated population into areas with lower population densities
ecology
relationship between organisms and their environment
ecosystem
interacting species along with their physical environment
ectoparasite
parasite that lives on the outside of the host
emergent plant
rooted on the bottom but has leaves that float on the surface of the water
endoparasite
parasite that lives on the inside of the host
energy
ability to do work
environment
everything that affects an organism during its lifetime
environmental resistance
the combination of all environmental influences that tend to keep populations stable
environmental science
includes both applied and theoretical aspects of human impact on the world
enzyme
speed up the rates of chemical reactions
ethics
seeks to define what is fundamentally right and wrong
euphotic zone
the upper layer in the ocean where the sun's rays penetrate
eutrophic lake
usually shallow, warm water lake that is nutrient rich
fossil fuels
organic remains of plants, animals, and microorganisms that lived millions of years ago that are preserved as natural gas, oil, and coal
habitat
kind of place where a particular organism lives
herbivore
eats plants
host
organism that a parasite uses for food
hypothesis
logical statement that explains an event or answers a question that can be tested
industrial ecology
concept that stresses cycling resources rather than extracting and eventually discarding them
interspecific competition
between members of different species for a limited resource
intraspecific competition
between members of the same species for a limited resource
keystone species
one that has a critical role to play in the maintenance of specific ecosystems
kinetic energy
moving objects
K-strategist
large organisms, long lives, few offspring, provide care for offspring, populations stabilize at the carrying capacity
lag phase
initial stage of population growth during which growth is slow
limiting factor
determines population size of an organism
limnetic zone
region that does not have rooted vegetation in a freshwater ecosystem
littoral zone
region with rooted vegetation in a freshwater ecosystem
morals
feeling of a culture about ethical issues
mortality
number of deaths per year
mutualism
both organisms benefit
natality
number of individuals added to the population through reproduction
niche
total role an organism plays in its ecosystem
non-renewable resources
resources that cannot be replaced by natural means
nucleus
central region of an atom that contains the protons and neutrons
oligotrophic lake
deep and cold nutrient poor lakes that are low in productivity
omnivore
eats both plants and animals
overburden
layer of souila nd rock that covers deposits of desirable material
parasite
uses another living organism for nourishment
passive solar system
allows for the entrapment and trsfer of heat from the sun to a building without the use of moving parts or machinery
pelagic
organisms that swim in open water
periphyton
attached organisms in freshwater streams and rivers
permafrost
permanately frozen ground
photosynthesis
how animals make food, the sun is converted into energy that the plant can use
photovoltaic cell
means of directly converting light energy into electricity
phytoplankton
free floating microscopic chlorophyll containing organisms
pioneer community
begins the soil building process
population
group of individuals of the same species inhabiting an area
potential energy
energy of position
predator
animal that kills and eats another
prey
animal that is killed by the predator
primary consumer
animal that eats producers directly
primary succession
succession that begins with bare mineral surfaces or water
renewable energy
those energy sources that can be regerated by natural process
replacement fertility
the number of children per woman needed just to replace the parents
reserves
knwon deposits from which materials can be extracted profitably with existing technology under present economic conditions
resources
naturally occurring substances that can be utilized by people but may not be economic
respiration
the process that organisms use to realease chemical bond energy from food
r-strategist
small organisms, short life span, large number of offspring, does not reach carrying capacity
scientific law
theory in which no exceptions have been found
secondary consumer
animals that eat animals that have eaten plants
secondary succession
seccession that begins with the destruction or disturbance of an existing ecosystem
sere
stage in succession
species
group of organisms that can interbreed and produce offspring capable of reproduction
stable equilibrium phase
the phase in a population growth curve in which the death rate and birth rate become equal
strip mining
type of mining in which the overburden is removed to procure the underlying deposit
succession
regular and predictable changes in the structure of a community, ultimately leading to a climax community
sustainable development
using renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems to produce a rise in real income per person and an iproved standard of living for everyone
symbiosis
close long lasting physical relationship between members of two different species
total fertility rate
number of children born per woman per lifetime
trophic level
stage in the energy flow through ecosystems
underground mining
type of mining in which the deposited material is removed without disturbing the overburden
wilderness
a place where no human development is allowed
zooplankton
weakly swimming microscopic animals