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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acute toxicity
occurs shortly after exposure to a substance
Alpha radiation
radiation with a particle with two neutrons and two protons
impervious confining layer of an aquifier
porous layer of earth material that becomes starated with water
partially permeable layer in an aquifer
Artesian well
result of pressurized aquifer being penetrated by a pipe of conduit, within which water rises without being pumped
plant hormone that stimulates growth
beta radiation
radiation that has electrons that are released from the nuclei of many fissionable atoms
buildup of a meterial in the body of an organism
biochemical oxygen demand
the amount of oxygen required by microbes to degrade organic molecules in aquatic ecosystems
kind of chemical that kills many different types of living things
able to be broken down by natural processes
measure of the variety of kinds of organisms present in the ecosystem
increses in the amount of material in the bodies of organisms at successively high trophic levels
accumulation of organic material produced by living things
the selective transfer of genes from one organism to another
buildings and land that have been abandoned because they are contaminated and the cost of cleaning up the site is high
soft pesticides taht work by interfering with normal nerve impulses
cancer causing agent
chemical weathering
the chemical alteration of rock in such a manner that it is more likely to fragment or to be dissolved
chronic toxicity
occurs after prolonged exposure to small doses of a toxic substance
forest harvesting method in which all the trees in a large area are cut and removed
waste disposal system where organic matter is allowed to decap to a usable product
conservation tillage
Leaves over 30% of the soil surface covered with crop residue
contour farming
method of tilling and planting at right angles to the slope which reduces soil erosion by runoff
ability of a chemical to degrade standard materials
this outer solid surface of the earth
conversion of arid and semiarid lands into deserts by inappropriate forming practies or overgrazing
economic cost
monetary costs that are necessary to exploit a natural resource
endangered species
species that are present in such small numbers that they ar ein immediate jeopardy of becoming extinct
energy cost
amount of energy required to exploit a resource
environmental cost
damage done to the environment as a resource is exploited
processes that loosen and move particles from one place to another
the enrichment of water (natural or cultural) with nutrients
the death of a species
fecal coliform bacteria
bacteria found in the intestines of umans and other animals, often used as an indicator of water pollution
allows some atoms to split into smaller particles
lowland area on either side of a river that is periodically covered by water
a soil characteristic that describes how well a soil crumbles
a pesticide designed to kill or control fungi
gamma radiation
electromagnetic radiation that comes from disintegrating atomic nuclei
genetic engineering
Insert certain DNA into the plant
geothermal energy
the heat energy from the Earth's molten core
greenhouse effect
property of carbon dioxide that allows light energy to pass through the atmosphere but prevents heat from leaving
greenhouse gas
carbon monoxide, cfc's, nitrous oxide, methane
water that infiltrates the soil and is stored in the spaces between particles in the earth
habitat management
the process of changing the natural community to encourage the increase in populations of certain desirable species
the time it takes for half of the radioactive material to spontaneously decompose
pesticide designed to kill or control plants
a horizontal laer in the soil
partially decomposed matter typically found in the top layer of the soil
ability to combust
includes all physical, social, and economic elements needed to support the population
designed to kill or control insects
in-stream water use
use of a stream's water flow for such purposes as hydroelectric power, recreation, and navigation
integrated pest management
method of pest management in whcih many aspects of the pest's biology are exploited to control it's numbers
adding water to an agricultural field to allow certain crops to grow where the lack of water would normally prevent their cultivation
land-use planning
process of evaluating the needs and wants of the populatuion, the characteristics and values of the land, and various alternative solutions before changes in land use are made
product of leaching
movement of minerals from the top layers of the soil to the B horizon by the downward movement of soil water
limiting factor
the one primary condition of the environment that determines population size of an organism
combination of the crust and outer layer of the mantle that forms the plates that move over the Earth's surface
layer of undecomposed or partially decomposed organic matter on the soil surface
soil type with good drainage and good texture that is ideal for growing crops
nurient that is required in relatively large amounts by plants
layer of th Earth between the crust and the core
mechanical weathering
physical forces that reduce the size of rock particles without changing the chemical nature of the rock
large, regional urban center
nutrient needed in extremely small amounts for proper plant growth
material that absorbs the energy from neutrons released by fission
system of agriculture in which large tracts of land are planted with the same crop
natural resources
structures and processes that can be used by humans for their own purposes but cannot be created by them
nature centers
teaching institutions that provide a variety of methods for people to learn about and appreciate the natural world
nonpersistent pesticides
pollutants that do not remain in the environment for long periods
nonpoint sources
pollutants that are not from a confined source
nontarget organisms
organism whose elimination is not the purpose of pesticide application
nuclear fission
decomposition of an atom's nucleus with the release of particles and energy
nuclear fusion
the union of smaller nuclei to form a heavier nucleus accompanied by the release of energy
nuclear reactor
device that permits a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction
organic agriculture
growing plants without the use of chemicals
parent material
material that is weathered to become the mineral part of the soil
passive solar system
design that allows for the entrapment and trasfer of ehat from the sun to a building without the use of moving parts or machinery
patchwork clear-cutting
forest harvest method in which patches of trees are cear-cut among patches of timber that are left untouched
used to eliminate pests
unwanted plant or animals that interferes with domesticicated plants and animals or human activity
chemical produced by one animals that changes the behavior of another
photochemical smog
yellowish-brown haze that is the result of the interaction of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and sunlight
photovoltaic cell
means of directly converting light energy into electricity
plate tectonics
concept that the outer surface of the Earth consists of large plates plates that are slowly moving over the surface of a plastic layer
point source
pollution that can be traced back to a single source
any addition of matter or energy that degrades the environment for humasn and other organisms
a system of agriculture that mixes different plant species in the same plots of land
potable water
unpolluted freshwater supplies suitable for drinking
energy that travels through space in the form of waves or particles
the property of materials that indicates the degree to which a material is likely to react vigorously to water or air
process of replanting areas after the original trees are removed
measure of the biological damage to tissue cause by certain amounts of radiation
known deposits from which materials can be extracted profitably with existing technology under present economic conditions
naturally occurring substances that can be utilized by people but may not be economic
ribbon sprawl
development along trasportation routes that usually consists of commercial and industrial building
designed to kill rodents
increase in the amount of salt in the soil due to the evaporation of irrigation water
secondary recovery
techiniques used to obtain the maximum amount of oil or natureal gas from a well
selective harvesting
individual high-value trees are removed from the forest, leaving the majority of the forest undisturbed
soil profile
series of layers seen as one digs down into the soil
soil structure
refers to the way that soil particles clmp together
soil texture
size of the particles that make up the soil
source reduction
reducing the amount of solid waste generated by using less
strip farming
planting of crops in strips that alternate with other crops
sustainable agriculture
able to continue agriculture indefinately
the interaction of materials or energy that increases the potential for harm
level area constructed on steep slopes to allow agriculture without extensive erosion
thermal inversion
condition in which warm air in the valley is sandwhiched between two layers of cold air and acts like a lid on the valley
thermal pollution
waste heat that industries release into the environment
threatened species
species that could become extinct if a critical factor in their environemtn were changed
measure of how toxic a substance is
tract development
construction of similar residential units over large areas
transuranic waste
nuclear wastes of the US weapons program that consist primaryily of isotopes of plutonium
urban growth limit
boundary established by municipal govenrment ath encourages development within the boudary and prohibits it outside the boundary
urban sprawl
development that takes place on undeveloped land
areas that include swamps, tidal marshes, coatsal wetlands, and estuaries
land that is under protection and cannot be used for development
plants of trees or stips of grasses at right angles to the prevailing wind to reduce erosion of osil by wind
land is designated for specific potential uses