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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
-any entity in the universe of which copies can be made, e.g. DNA
-discrete entities that contain replicators and have been designed by selection to preserve and propagate the replicators inside it. example: individuals or phenotypes are vehicles for gene replication
-effects of the developmental environment on the behavior.
-development and experience
-evolutionary history of the trait.
cost of meiosis
-offspring only carries 50% of genes
sexual selection
-applies to those characteristics that provide individuals with advantages in gainings access to mates
-"survival of the sexiest"
At what level is natural selection most potent? why?
-where the rate of differential reproduction is highest--individual level
process of growing old, aging
what are the observations (facts) and inferences that form the basis for Darwin's theory of evolution?
Fact 1: all species have such high potential fertility that population would increase exponentially
Fact 2:except for minor annual and rare major fluctuations, population size is normally stable
Fact 3:natural resources are limited. In a stable environment they remain constant
Fact 4: No two individuals are exactly the same; populations have great variability
Fact 5: Much of this variation is heritable

Inerence 1: More individuals are produced than can be supported by available resources, resulting in competition for survival
Inference 2: Survival is not random and depends on the heritable constitution (genetics) of the indivudals. This differential survival is natural selection
Inference 3: over generations, natural selection leads to gradual change in the population (=evolution) and production of new species (speciation)
What is the difference between proximate cause and an ultimate fucntion of a trait?
prox: physiology and morphological mechanisms underlying behavior

Ult: adaptive significance of behavior
Why is it difficult to evolve adaptations that are advantageous for species survival ("group selection"), but detrimental to individual reproductive competition?
group selection: natural selection of traits that benefit the survival and reproduction of groups or species at the expense of some individuals. unlikely to occur

Individual selection: the natural selection of traits as a consequence of differential reproduction of individuals
what are apparent functions of infanticide? how do we know (what kinds of data)?
infanticide is primarily occuring in clan like groups of animals. (lions and apes/gorillas). they kill the offspring in the clan if they don't believe it is theirs so that their genes can spread.