Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a theory?
a widely accepted hypothesis
what is a law?
it has more credibility than a theory
what is a hypothesis?
it is an educated guess, or a possible explanation
what is an observation?
something observed
what is a the most credible:

law, theory, hypothesis
what is the least credible:

law, theory, hypothesis
What is the first step to the scientific method of problem solving?
(A) making observations
what is the second step to the scientific method of problem solving?
(b) forming hypothesis
what is the third step to the scientific method of problem solving?
(c) making predictions from hypothesis
what is the fourth step of the scientific method of problem solving?
(d) testing those predictions, if they are not correct go back to step (a)
what are mutations?
mutations are random abnormal genetic changes
how do mutations affect populations?
mutations change the different survivalness of a population.
how are mutation related to evolution?
when a whole population changes due to a mutation, that is called evolutioon
what organelles in the cell contain DNA?
nucleus and mitochondrion
what are mitosis and meiosis?
mitosis is basic cell division. This was probably similar to the way one celled organisms in the beginning reporduced. Meisosi is used to create sex cell gametes.
How do mitosis and meiosis differ?
Mitosis is used to create diploid cells (as in holding two chromosomes).

Meiosis is used to create haploid cells or gametes (one chromosome).
What is the first stage of cell division and what happens in it?
1st Stage: Prophase- DNA condenses into chromosomes
What is the second stage of cell division and what happens in it?
2nd stage: Metaphase- Chromosomes line up along equatorial plane
What is the third stage of cell division and what happens in it?
3rd stage: Anaphase- Seperatioon of centromeres
What is the fourth stage of cell division and what happens in it?
4th stage: Telephase- chromosomes uncoil. Nuclear envelope reforms
Where does the crossing occur?
at the chiasmata
What are chiasmata?
the point at which chromatids exchange genetic material, usually visible within the first stages of Prophase 1.
what are gametes?
gametes are sex cells, specifically sperm and egg cells
What are their characteristics (N or 2N) and how are they formed?
Gametes are characteristic to haplod cells and tehy are formed through meiosis.
How many chromosomes do humans normally possess?
46 chromosomes per human cell
Who articulated the basic laws of genetics?
Greger Medel-1860s
What is a genotype?
A genotype are the alleles possed by an organism
What is a phenotype?
A phenotype is a chemical/physical results of a genetic code
What is chorionic cillus sampling?
a test to check for genetic abnormalities. higher risk of miscarriage then with aminocentisis. In this case, they remove cells that will form the placenta
What is amniocentesis?
a test that helps deduce genetic abnormality i children. Fral cells are taken from the womb, and chekced for disorders.